Frazalni glagoli i zašto su problematični

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Frazni glagoli u engleskom jeziku, prefiksacija u hrvatskom i par praktičnih savjeta za učenje

Pregled sadržaja

Jedna od pojava glagola u engleskom jeziku, koja je u hrvatskom vrlo rijetka, je ta da se dodavanjem odgovarajućeg prijedloga i priloga tvore novi glagoli, koji se po svom značenju razlikuju od osnovnog glagola. Frazalni glagoli su, dakle, kombinacija glagola i prijedloga, čestice ili priloga. Značenje frazalnog glagola obično ne možemo razumjeti na temelju pojedinačnih riječi koje ga tvore. Frazalni glagoli su zato hrvatskim i drugim stranim govornicima engleskog jezika često problematični.

Frazni glagoli i engleski jezik

Frazalni glagoli, Phrasal verbs,  to je odrednica koja nam je potrebna za današnju temu.

Frazalni glagoli su veoma bitni u engleskom jeziku i komunikaciji.

Pravilo je da nekoga tko savršeno govori engleski možete razlikovati od rođenog Britanca baš po upotrebi frazalnih glagola.

Da bi objasnili o čemu se tu radi, da počnemo sa pričom, pa ćemo poslije na gramatička pitanja.

Obavezno pažljivo čitajte tekst do kraja kako bi savladali osnovnu temu:

Frazalni glagoli u engleskom jeziku

Kada pogledamo (davno, davno) unazad primijetit ćemo da su se razni jezici, zbog potrebe preciznog izražavanja dodatno razvijali na različite načine.

Tvorba glagola u hrvatskom jeziku – prefiksacija

Recimo u hrvatskom jeziku, uzet ćemo primjer glagola trčati.
Sam, osnovni glagol trčati ne može pokriti sve jezične potrebe koje mi imamo da bi precizno prenijeli neku informaciju (bez korištenja pantomime).
Evo primjera:

  1. On je trčao.
  2. On je dotrčao.
  3. On je otrčao.

U sva 3 primjera imamo osnovni glagol trčati na koji smo dodali različite prefikse – do, o.

Ovim postupkom smo dobili drugo značenje osnovnog glagola i precizno prenijeli informaciju sa malo riječi, konkretno ovdje smo se bavili pravcem trčanja.

Postupak stvaranja, tvorbi složenica u hrvatskom jeziku, koji se sastoji od dodavanja prefiksa (dijelovi riječi, najčešće nastali od prijedloga) ispred riječi se naziva prefiksacija.

Kad sam već spomenuo prefiksaciju, samo da dodam da se ovakvim postupkom u hrvatskom najčešće grade glagoli ali mogu i neke druge vrste riječi: sugovornik, premršav

Da se vratimo na glagole. Dodavanjem prefiksa na glagol dobijemo glagol sa novim značenjem. Ponekad se dogodi da jedan glagol može i u našem jeziku imati, poslije ovakve intervencije 2 značenja:

 doslovno
– preneseno

Primjer:
– glagol letjeti, na njega dodajemo prefiks po-, i dobijemo novi glagol poletjeti.

– doslovno značenje
Ptica je poletjela uplašena iznenadnom bukom.

– preneseno značenje
Poletjela mu je u zagrljaj.

Frazalni glagoli u engleskom jeziku, objašnjenje

Do sada smo već naučili kako je nastao engleski jezik.

Znamo da spada u grupu germanskih jezika, kao recimo, njemački. U njemačkom je taj razvoj jezika otišao u drugom pravcu.

Engleski jezik nije u svom razvoju krenuo u tom pravcu. Je li za to krivo osvajanje od strane Normana 1066. godine, da ne pretpostavljamo. Povijest kaže da su u to vrijeme već postojali frazalni glagoli ali se na njih gledalo kao na primitivan, narodski govor.

Shakespeare je bio veliki zagovornik korišćenja frazalnih glagola i to je to. Smatra se da je ipak 20. stoljeće donijelo, najveći broj frazalnih glagola u engleski jezik.

Znači u engleskom nije došlo do postupka prefiksacije.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Slušanje: Klikni ‘start’ i napišite frazni glagol koji čujete

Popis najćešćih frazalnih glagola

frazni glagolDefinicijaPrimjerprijevod
ask someone outinvite on a dateIvica asked Katarina out
to lunch.
pozvati van
back someone upSupportHis mother backed him up when he decided to start his own business.poduprijeti
blow upExplodeThe police found the
man who wanted to
blow up a plane.
eksplodirati
break downstop functioning
(machine, vehicle)
My computer broke down yesterday.pokvariti se
break inforce entry to a buildingThe young man tried to break in but someone came by and he ran away.provaliti
break upend a relationshipHe broke up with his
girlfriend not long ago.
razići se
bring someone downmake unhappyFilms with sad endings always bring me down.ražalostiti
bring someone upraise a childLinda brought up three
children.
odgojiti
bring something upstart talking about a
subject
They start quarrelling whenever he brings up his ex.spomenuti
call something offCancelThey called the meeting off because half of the people were too busy to
come.
otkazati
calm downrelax after being angryCould you calm down. Everything will be okay.umiriti se
not care for
someone/something
not like (formal)I don’t care for her
opinion.
mariti
catch upget to the same point as
someone else
I stopped and waited for my group to catch up.uhvatiti, dostići
(doći do iste točke, gdje je netko drugi)
check inarrive and register at a
hotel or airport
When we arrive at the hotel we have to check in.prijaviti se
check outleave a hotelWe packed and check
out of the hotel.
odjaviti se
check someone/something outlook at carefully, investigateThe police is checking out the call.provjeriti, istražiti
come across somethingto find by coincidenceI sometimes come
across protected when hiking in
mountains.
naći
count on
someone/something
rely onI know I can count on
him whenever I need anything.
računati na
cut back on somethingconsume lessYou should cut back on
alcohol.
smanjiti upotrebu
do away with somethingDiscardIt’s time to do away
with all these old clothes.
odbaciti
dress upwear nice clothingThe club we are going to is quite fancy so I suggest you dress up.lijepo se obući
drop in/by/overcome without an
appointment
You can drop in/by/over at my place any time
you want.
navratiti
drop outquit a class, school,
course
He dropped out of
school at the age of 15.
napustiti (npr. školu)
eat outeat at a restaurantDon’t cook. We’ll eat
out tonight.
jesti vani
fall apartbreak into piecesMy shoes are falling
apart. I have to buy anew pair.
raspasti se
figure outunderstand, answerTry to figure out what their intentions are
because I would really like to know.
shvatiti, sjetiti se nečeg
fill into write information in
blanks
Fill in the form with
your name, address, and email address and give it back to us.
popuniti
find outDiscoverWe found out beautiful islands when travelling around by boat.otkriti
find something outdiscoverWhen Tim found out
that his friend had been lying he was really
disappointed.
shvatiti
get along/onlike each otherI get along/on with my mother-in-law and visit her quite often.slagati se
get awaygo on a vacationAfter all this work I can’t wait to get away next week.ići na odmor
get away withdo without being noticedThis time he won’t get away with murder.izvući se, učiniti<
get over somethingrecover from an illness, loss, or emotionIt took her a long time to get over her divorce.preboljeti;
get round to somethingI hope I will get round to making a cake for my daughter’s birthday next
week.
naći vremena za nešto
get togethermeet (usually for social
reasons)
Let’s get together for our school anniversary.naći se (s nekim)
get upget out of bedMy brother got up at
went to the seaside.
ustati iz kreveta
get upStandNo matter how many
times I fell I always got up and kept trying.
ustati
give something awayruin a secretMy best friend gave the news about my pregnancy away by
accident.
otkriti tajnu
give something awaygive something to someone for freeWhen my co-worker
bought a new computer she gave away her old one.
dati besplatno
give inreluctantly stop or arguingMy friend didn’t want to watch that comedy, but he gave in in the end.predati se (u svađi)
give something upquit a habitI have to give up biting my nails.prestati imati naviku
give upstop tryingNo matter how hard it gets you should never give up.odustati (prestati pokušavati)
go after someonefollow someoneShe went after him with a knife and he ran away.slijediti nekog
go against someonecompete, opposeI am very nervous since I am going against my biggest competitor
tomorrow.
suprotstaviti se
nekomu/nečemu, nadmetati se
go aheadProceedOur boss said we can go
ahead with our plan.
nastaviti
go backreturn to a placeShe went back to work in the afternoon to some things.vratiti se
go outleave home to go on a
social event
I am going out for a drink with my friends.ići van
go out withdateWe’ve been going out for a while now.ići van s nekim
go over somethingReviewI went over my article
for the last time and
sent it to the publisher.
pregledati
go without somethingsuffer lack or deprivationThey were so poor that they had to go without food from time to time.biti bez
grow apartstop being friends over
time
Amanda and her sister grew apart after she had moved.otuđiti se
grow backRegrowDon’t worry. Your hair
will soon grow back.
ponovno narasti
grow upbecome an adultWhen our children grow up we will have more time for each other.odrasti
hand something inSubmitThe deadline to hand in
the reports is May 12.
predati
hand something overgive (usually unwillingly)Johnny, now hand over the mobile phone to your father because he
needs it.
izručiti, predati
hang instay positive (N.Amer.,
informal)
Hang in there. Your
hard work will sooner or later be repaid.
držati se (ostati pozitivan)
hang onwait a short time
(informal)
Hang on a second. I’ll come with you.počekati
hang outspend time relaxing
(informal)
I hang out with him and have a good time almost every weekend.družiti se
hang upend a phone callHe was so angry that he
just hung up.
poklopiti, prekinuti vezu
hold
someone/something back
prevent from doing/goingI had to hold my friend back when they were teasing him about his
sister.
spriječiti (koga/što)
hold something backhide an emotionShe was hardly holding back her tears when they were leaving.zadržati, sakriti (emociju)
hold onwait a short timePlease hold on. Ms
Smith will be back in a second.
počekati
hold
someone/somethingup
RobHave you heard that
someone held the post up last evening?
opljačkati
keep on doing somethingcontinue doingKeep on with the good
work.
nastaviti
keep from someone somethingnot tellWe kept the pregnancy from our friends initially.skrivati,tajiti
keep someone/something outstop from enteringKeep the children out of the office please.ne puštati unutra
let someone downfail to support or help,
disappoint
John has never let me down and I am really happy for having him in my life.ostaviti na cjedilu, razočarati (nekog),
let someone inallow to enterThe old lady didn’t let the man in because she didn’t know him.pustiti nekog unutra
look after
someone/something
take care ofI had to look after my
younger brother when my parents were away.
čuvati
look down on someonethink less of, consider inferiorI don’t know why she looks down on
everybody. Who does she think she is?
gledati na nekog svisoka,
omalovažavati
look for
someone/something
try toI’m looking for my Have you seen it anywhere?tražiti
look forward to somethingbe excited about the futureI really look forward to meeting you.veseliti se
look into somethinginvestigateShe was looking into
the possibilities of buying a franchise.
istražiti
look outbe careful, vigilant, and
take notice
Look out! This slippery.paziti
look something overcheck, examineWhen I was looking
over my seminar paper I found three grammatical
mistakes.
pregledati
look something upsearch and information in a
reference book ordatabase
I can look the meaning of this word up in the dictionary.potražiti
look up to someonehave a lot of respect forI looked up to my
grandmother when I was a child.
diviti se (nekom)
make something upinvent, lie about
something
The boy says the story about the rape is not true and that the girl has made it up.izmisliti što
make upforgive each otherWe refused to see each other for two weeks but we have made up now.pomiriti se s kim
make someone upapply cosmetics toI made my friend up for
the date.
našminkati koga
mix something upconfuse two things / rearrange something / confusedI mixed the coke and pepsi up. Can you tell?pomiješati, zamijeniti
pass awayDieAfter a long and painful struggle with cancer my grandfather passedaway.preminuti
pass outFaintI almost passed out
because of all the crowd and bad air.
onesvijestiti se
pay someone backreturn owed moneyI’ll pay you back that
euro next time we see each other.
vratiti kome novac
pay for somethingbe punished for doing
something bad
I will make sure he will pay for being so mean to you.platiti
pick something outChooseI picked out these jeans
for you to try on.
izabrati
point
someone/something out
indicate with yourCan you point that
actress out when she appears on the screen?
pokazati (prstom)
put something downput what you are holding on a surface orYou can put the luggage down and have some
rest because the planeis delayed.
odložiti
put someone downinsult, make someone
feel stupid
The man was puting his wife down because of her job.vrijeđati koga
put something offPostponeWe put off the
appointment because ofher illness.
odgoditi
put up with
someone/something
TolerateIt’s difficult to put up with him when he is so stubborn.podnositi
put something onput clothing/accessories
on your body
I put on some make-up and went to work.obući
run into
someone/something
meet unexpectedlyGeorge ran into his
elementary schoolteacher while walking
down the street.
naljeteti na koga/ što (slučajno)
run over
someone/something
drive a vehicle over a person or thingWhen I was driving
home I ran over a cat. It jumped on the road and
I couldn’t do anyrhing.
pregaziti koga/što
run outhave none leftWe ran out of sugar so I
couldn’t make a cake.
ponestati
shop aroundcompare pricesSue loves shopping
around before buyinganything.
uspoređivati cijene (po trgovinama)
show offact special in front of othersHe loves showing off his muscles in front of the girlsbahatiti se praviti se važan
stick with somethingcontinue doing something,Stick to your goals and you will succeeddržati se čega, ograničiti se najednu stvar
switch something offstop the energy turn offI switched off the TV and went to bed.ugasiti
switch something
on
start the energy turn onCan you switch on the radio? It would be nice to hear some music.upaliti
take after someoneresemble a family
member
I take after my father. We are both lazy.biti nalik
(karakterno) ili
sličiti
take something apartpurposely break into piecesHe took the computer apart and repaired it.rastaviti što
take something backreturn an itemMandy had to take her
phone back because it
didn’t work.
vratiti
take offstart toI am always nervous
when the plane takesoff.
poletjeti
take something offremove something
(usually clothing)
The doctor told me to take off my shirt.svući, skinuti
take something outremove from a place or
thing
Kim took out her
handkerchief and blew her nose.
izvaditi
take someone outpay for someone to go
somewhere with you
He said he wanted to take me out to a Thai restaurant for dinner.voditi koga van
think something overConsiderI really need time to
think it over before Idecide.
razmisliti
throw something awaydispose ofI had to throw some of my old clothes away because I didn’t have
room for the new ones.
baciti
turn something downdecrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)Please turn the radio down otherwise the neighbours might
complain.
smanjiti (zvuk, toplinu, svjetlo)
turn something downRefuseThey turned the student down because he hadno work experience.otkloniti, odbiti
turn something offstop the energy switch offCould you, please, turn the radio off and start studying?ugasiti
turn something upincrease the level of somethingCan you turn the heat up? I’m freezing!pojačati (zvuk, temperaturu, svijetlo)
turn upappear suddenlyLarry turned up
unexpectedly and surprised everyone.
pojaviti se
try something onsample clothingShe tried the dress on,
but it was too big.
probati (obleko)
try something outTestI would have to try this car out before I buy it.pokušati (u smislu testirati)
wake upstop sleepingWe have to wake up at six at the latest to catch our train.probuditi se
warm upprepare body for exerciseStretching exercises
warm up our bodies and prevent injuries.
zagrijati se
wear offfade awayWater-resistant mascara doesn’t wear off so fast.nestati, ugasiti se
work outExerciseShe works out a lot to
stay in shape.
vježbati
work outbe successfulEverything has thankfully worked out all right.uspjeti (uspješno završiti)
Prijedlozi su ostali iza glagola ali zajedno sa glagolom čine cjelinu, frazu, koja dobije neko novo značenje.

To značenje može biti, kao i u hrvatskom:

– Literal, doslovno
– Idiomatic, preneseno

Princip je isti, pravilo je različito, na glagol dodajemo prijedlog ali iza glagola:

uzmimo npr. glagol look, gledati i dodamo mu, naravno iza njega prijedlog up, gore

  1. Literal, doslovno značenje
    • He looked up and smiled.
    • On je podigao(po+digao) pogled i nasmijao se. (definiramo pravac)
  2. Idiomatic, preneseno ili preciznije to je fraza sa novim značenjem
    • He looked up the word in the dictionary.
    • Ovdje je značenje – to search for, potražiti

Postoji više vrsta frazalnih glagola u engleskom jeziku.

Razvrstati ćemo ih nekom drugom prilikom. Vrijeme je za par savjeta.

Kako učiti i naučiti frazalne glagole u engleskom

Ne postoji lak način, sorry. Ali nije potrebno ni komplicirati. Najgora moguća odluka je uzeti listu frazalnih glagola i bubati ih napamet. Pozlit će vam se vrlo brzo, a i neće imati efekta.

Ja to ne preporučujem, uopće ne pomažem svojim đacima, čak im i odmažem jer ne želim da im izdiktiram značenja koja će oni samo naučiti i zaboraviti.

Jedini pravi način je koristiti ih, uočiti ih prilikom upotrebe engleskog jezika i na taj način proširiti vokabular.

Ako pričamo o frazalnim glagolima kad je pitanju test ili pismeni u školi – pa svi oni, koje je potrebno znati se već nalaze u udžbeniku, malo truda i to je to.

  • Jim asked Kim out. = Jim je pozvao Kim van.

Pojedinačan glagol se može pojaviti u kombinaciji s različitim česticama/ prijedlozima/ prilozima i značenja tih kombinacija se međusobno razlikuju. Pogledajmo npr. glagol look:

  • My older brother looked after me when I was younger 
  • Moj stariji brat je pazio na mene, dok sam bila mlada.
  • Look at you! You’re so beautiful in this dress! =
  • Pogledaj se! Tako si lijepa u toj haljini!
  • I am looking for my keys. Have you seen them anywhere?
  • Tražim svoje ključeve. Jesi li ih negdje vidio?
  • Look out! The floor is slippery.
  • Pazi! Pod je sklizak.

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