Frazni glagoli u engleskom jeziku, prefiksacija u hrvatskom i par praktičnih savjeta za učenje

Transcript

Well good morning everyone I hope you’ve had your cup of coffee as I’m having mine now because this morning we’re going to quickly touch base with phrasal verbs now before we get into that I would like to thank you for tuning in and be sure to check out our blog it’s at tecajengleskog.com or you could also type english4living.com calm and also we have an assortment of free online courses which you can take and we are also holding online lessons both group and individual so if you are interested just send us an email and we’ll get back with you thank you so much for that now to the topic of phrasal verbs okay from a non natives perspective phrasal verbs can be a difficult challenge why because they’re just not an innate or intrinsic way of your speech to be honest with you phrasal verbs are a bit overrated they’re not over yeah let’s say they’re overrated because we can get by like I just use a phrasal verb we can get by without using them as a matter of fact phrasal verbs can kind of dilute our language in a way because we substitute many often more precise or accurate words with phrasal verbs thus we kind of restrict our vocabulary or can now the good thing about phrasal verbs is that they can provide a very nice colloquial idiomatic way of speech okay in a group let’s say a group meeting the board meeting International Board business meeting okay where you have the plethora of non-native speakers chances are that you won’t hear many phrasal verbs in that discussion and guess what that’s okay because the point of our learning is communication conveying precisely what we want and guess what we can do that without phrasal verbs but if you are the zealot and you want to endeavor in the pursuance of this phrasal verb knowledge then so be it that’s great good for you and that’s what we’re here to discuss now phrasal verbs are made of made-up that’s a it’s the phrasal verb are made up I could just say are made of two things they are constructed the formula okay we have the verb and we have the particle now the particle is usually either a preposition most times it’s a preposition could be an adverb as well so that is the formula it’s pretty simple two parts verb and a particle let’s just say it’s a preposition for now okay now phrasal verbs can be very universal we can use let’s say one type of phrasal verb for many situations it can have many meanings it can have both literal and idiomatic or yeah like idiomatic meaning let us examine one phrasal verb put. Put is a very common verb used with phrasal verbs okay so we have put and from put we couldn’t we can make many phrasal verbs from that but I will use down okay down now that’s the particle we have the verb and the particle that’s a phrasal verb voila we have accomplished our mission have we? all right let’s take a break for a sip of coffee Cheers ah okay back to it okay so we have a literal meaning in this phrasal verb okay it can literally mean to put down something to place something at a lower level okay I could say could you please put down the groceries I will assist you a police officer might tell the robber to put down his weapon okay so it has a literal meaning the other meaning we we can use for put-down is more of a darker grim meaning. it can mean to euthanize an animal to put an animal to sleep let’s say an animal is sick an older let’s say you have an older pet he can’t walk he’s having big problems you would put him down or her down or it down okay now two meanings here that’s just an example so we often can put the the object in the middle okay so put something down that’s just a basic construct there okay you could also say put down something however I think flows more nicely to put the object in most cases between the verb and the particle okay now there is an exception with that when we’re talking about people and people like him I can’t say put down him I can’t say put down her I must use this pronoun in between the particle and the verb okay so now that we’ve gone over the basic function introduction concept of phrasal verbs we can take a look at them but let me recapitulate or let me give the main premise here okay don’t worry so much about phrasal verbs okay we get many students who stress about them it is good to understand them at least however there they are….. it’s a subject that takes time so don’t overwhelm yourself with them some of them can be very difficult but it is a non-essential part of your language it’s best you focus more on tense indirect questions and articles okay now I’m speaking to you Croatians okay once you refine these subjects these are I would say they are more important than learning phrasal verbs however phrasal verbs are fun okay let’s just admit it okay so here here’s a list okay now we’ve got this list of course here on our blog (tecajengleskog.com/frazalni-glagoli) I’ll just maximize this so okay so we could search for something okay let’s say like put okay now you see put has many many many particles behind it okay we put something down okay now the description which I gave you it’s not on here where we euthanize an animal okay it’s dark it’s a dark expression but it is often used so that’s not on here so you can make a note of that okay but you can also put someone down and not euthanize them so that means to degrade them okay to degrade someone I’m putting her down I’m putting him down that means I’m making them feel very little okay I’m making them feel very little so we have a whole list here and guess how you’re gonna learn these yeah ya have to you have to roll your sleeves up like this and you have to get down to business and you have to like any vocabulary term you must study them and more importantly I would write them down in your own words and then make them a part of your speech look there’s a difference between recognizing vocabulary and implementing vocabulary when I hear words and I can apply this to my Croatian, okay my Croatian is not so great all right let’s admit it. I can understand I can recognize words but there’s a difference between recognizing being aware of a word and using that word and how do we use that word we have to know and this applies to phrasal verbs we have to know the context in which we use these words this is applicable to phrasal verbs or any vocabulary that we’re learning okay you have to make it a part of your speech now how do we do that guess what guys it’s not very hard it’s like all these diets out there right there’s a diet for this there’s a diet for that well to me this is my philosophy it’s a pretty simple formula you eat less than you expend okay just like English all right you learn you have to consume this knowledge you have to use this vocabulary you have to make it a part of your speech simple as that huh wallah now writing is a great way to do this you can you can learn a word let’s say break down okay first phrasal verb write it down learn the definition and then write it out in your own words okay this is the main thing you have to start writing these words out in your own words because if you can’t do that how in the world would you be able to speak it if you can’t write it okay so let’s just practice let’s just do some practice here how about that now let me go to the to the let’s do vježba (practice in Croatian) we can do intermediate all right now whoa okay so we have to read the directions first now fill in the missing phrasal verbs A to D now this is helpful because we have phrasal verbs beginning with A to phrasal verbs beginning with D now we’re not going to do all of these I will just do a couple with you and hopefully I know them I’m just joking alright so John _______(blank) Kathy _______(blank) to lunch alright so we have to we have to kind of think of the context here what does a man do to a girl or woman to lunch maybe he asked because it must begin with A asked ok asked asked okay Cathy well when you invite someone you ask them out okay John asked Cathy out voila it’s very nice right. okay let’s just do one more and then we’ll kind of recap what we’ve talked about okay his mother _______(blank) him when he decided to start his own business okay it sounds like it sounds more like his mother was trying to support him because when you start your business you need a lot of support okay so I would say his mother possibly backed now look we have an object and this is what I was telling you about earlier we often put the objects between the verb and the particle so this is a pronoun, an objective pronoun okay we must put it between there’s no choice um number one for example I can say John asked out Cathy to lunch that is okay but if I changed Cathy to her I couldn’t say John asked out her to lunch it it doesn’t flow it doesn’t work doesn’t fit the ticket doesn’t fit the bill okay now his mother backed him up okay now this means she supported him I could say this in that way I could say it more explicitly his mother supported him when he decided to start his own business and that’s what I’m telling you also phrasal verbs are just a different way of expressing the same things we can use with with other verbs and forms okay and to summarize our short little lesson here okay number one phrasal verbs are cool all right we can use them and you can sound maybe more natural in your language but you have to be careful also you don’t want to overuse them it doesn’t want to sound like you’re trying to okay they have to flow they have to sound natural okay and the best way to do that is to very it was excuse me is to study them thoroughly okay study them right okay write out your own examples right now it’s your own sentences with phrasal verbs and lastly just don’t stress too much about phrasal verbs okay as we say there’s bigger fish to fry there are bigger fish to fry and phrasal verbs really aren’t one of them okay they’re nice to understand especially if we’re watching you know English movies and you want to know what something means well there are a lot of phrasal verbs used but focus if your if your grammar is a bit into insufficient you know with some certain things you know as I was saying tense, articles and indirect questions reported speech conditionals participle clauses everything all this stuff I think trumps and I’m not talking about Donald Trump okay look this term up it trumps phrasal verbs okay so do that and we will succeed you will succeed you can do it and also look if you want any or if you are interested in any online lessons feel free to drop us a line we’re here for you have we’re in Zagreb we teach all throughout of Europe and the world so hit us up if you have any questions additionally we might even start doing little snippets of grammar lectures for fun in this quarantine time to keep you guys busy but doing so live and if you do have any interest in that comment and other than that we’ll see you next time and enjoy your phrasal verbs may the phrasal verbs be with you and you with the phrasal verb bye-bye

Pregled sadržaja

Jedna od pojava glagola u engleskom jeziku, koja je u hrvatskom vrlo rijetka, je ta da se dodavanjem odgovarajućeg prijedloga i priloga tvore novi glagoli, koji se po svom značenju razlikuju od osnovnog glagola. Frazalni glagoli su, dakle, kombinacija glagola i prijedloga, čestice ili priloga. Značenje frazalnog glagola obično ne možemo razumjeti na temelju pojedinačnih riječi koje ga tvore. Frazalni glagoli su zato hrvatskim i drugim stranim govornicima engleskog jezika često problematični.

Frazni glagoli i engleski jezik

Frazalni glagoli, Phrasal verbs,  to je odrednica koja nam je potrebna za današnju temu.

Frazalni glagoli su veoma bitni u engleskom jeziku i komunikaciji.

Pravilo je da nekoga tko savršeno govori engleski možete razlikovati od rođenog Britanca baš po upotrebi frazalnih glagola.

Da bi objasnili o čemu se tu radi, da počnemo sa pričom, pa ćemo poslije na gramatička pitanja.

Obavezno pažljivo čitajte tekst do kraja kako bi savladali osnovnu temu:

Frazalni glagoli u engleskom jeziku

Kada pogledamo (davno, davno) unazad primijetit ćemo da su se razni jezici, zbog potrebe preciznog izražavanja dodatno razvijali na različite načine.

Tvorba glagola u hrvatskom jeziku – prefiksacija

Recimo u hrvatskom jeziku, uzet ćemo primjer glagola trčati.
Sam, osnovni glagol trčati ne može pokriti sve jezične potrebe koje mi imamo da bi precizno prenijeli neku informaciju (bez korištenja pantomime).
Evo primjera:

  1. On je trčao.
  2. On je dotrčao.
  3. On je otrčao.

U sva 3 primjera imamo osnovni glagol trčati na koji smo dodali različite prefikse – do, o.

Ovim postupkom smo dobili drugo značenje osnovnog glagola i precizno prenijeli informaciju sa malo riječi, konkretno ovdje smo se bavili pravcem trčanja.

Postupak stvaranja, tvorbi složenica u hrvatskom jeziku, koji se sastoji od dodavanja prefiksa (dijelovi riječi, najčešće nastali od prijedloga) ispred riječi se naziva prefiksacija.

Kad sam već spomenuo prefiksaciju, samo da dodam da se ovakvim postupkom u hrvatskom najčešće grade glagoli ali mogu i neke druge vrste riječi: sugovornik, premršav

Da se vratimo na glagole. Dodavanjem prefiksa na glagol dobijemo glagol sa novim značenjem. Ponekad se dogodi da jedan glagol može i u našem jeziku imati, poslije ovakve intervencije 2 značenja:

 doslovno
– preneseno

Primjer:
– glagol letjeti, na njega dodajemo prefiks po-, i dobijemo novi glagol poletjeti.

– doslovno značenje
Ptica je poletjela uplašena iznenadnom bukom.

– preneseno značenje
Poletjela mu je u zagrljaj.

Frazalni glagoli u engleskom jeziku, objašnjenje

Do sada smo već naučili kako je nastao engleski jezik.

Znamo da spada u grupu germanskih jezika, kao recimo, njemački. U njemačkom je taj razvoj jezika otišao u drugom pravcu.

Engleski jezik nije u svom razvoju krenuo u tom pravcu. Je li za to krivo osvajanje od strane Normana 1066. godine, da ne pretpostavljamo. Povijest kaže da su u to vrijeme već postojali frazalni glagoli ali se na njih gledalo kao na primitivan, narodski govor.

Shakespeare je bio veliki zagovornik korišćenja frazalnih glagola i to je to. Smatra se da je ipak 20. stoljeće donijelo, najveći broj frazalnih glagola u engleski jezik.

Znači u engleskom nije došlo do postupka prefiksacije.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Slušanje: Klikni ‘start’ i napišite frazni glagol koji čujete

Transcript

Well good morning everyone I hope you’ve had your cup of coffee as I’m having mine now because this morning we’re going to quickly touch base with phrasal verbs now before we get into that I would like to thank you for tuning in and be sure to check out our blog it’s at tecajengleskog.com or you could also type english4living.com calm and also we have an assortment of free online courses which you can take and we are also holding online lessons both group and individual so if you are interested just send us an email and we’ll get back with you thank you so much for that now to the topic of phrasal verbs okay from a non natives perspective phrasal verbs can be a difficult challenge why because they’re just not an innate or intrinsic way of your speech to be honest with you phrasal verbs are a bit overrated they’re not over yeah let’s say they’re overrated because we can get by like I just use a phrasal verb we can get by without using them as a matter of fact phrasal verbs can kind of dilute our language in a way because we substitute many often more precise or accurate words with phrasal verbs thus we kind of restrict our vocabulary or can now the good thing about phrasal verbs is that they can provide a very nice colloquial idiomatic way of speech okay in a group let’s say a group meeting the board meeting International Board business meeting okay where you have the plethora of non-native speakers chances are that you won’t hear many phrasal verbs in that discussion and guess what that’s okay because the point of our learning is communication conveying precisely what we want and guess what we can do that without phrasal verbs but if you are the zealot and you want to endeavor in the pursuance of this phrasal verb knowledge then so be it that’s great good for you and that’s what we’re here to discuss now phrasal verbs are made of made-up that’s a it’s the phrasal verb are made up I could just say are made of two things they are constructed the formula okay we have the verb and we have the particle now the particle is usually either a preposition most times it’s a preposition could be an adverb as well so that is the formula it’s pretty simple two parts verb and a particle let’s just say it’s a preposition for now okay now phrasal verbs can be very universal we can use let’s say one type of phrasal verb for many situations it can have many meanings it can have both literal and idiomatic or yeah like idiomatic meaning let us examine one phrasal verb put. Put is a very common verb used with phrasal verbs okay so we have put and from put we couldn’t we can make many phrasal verbs from that but I will use down okay down now that’s the particle we have the verb and the particle that’s a phrasal verb voila we have accomplished our mission have we? all right let’s take a break for a sip of coffee Cheers ah okay back to it okay so we have a literal meaning in this phrasal verb okay it can literally mean to put down something to place something at a lower level okay I could say could you please put down the groceries I will assist you a police officer might tell the robber to put down his weapon okay so it has a literal meaning the other meaning we we can use for put-down is more of a darker grim meaning. it can mean to euthanize an animal to put an animal to sleep let’s say an animal is sick an older let’s say you have an older pet he can’t walk he’s having big problems you would put him down or her down or it down okay now two meanings here that’s just an example so we often can put the the object in the middle okay so put something down that’s just a basic construct there okay you could also say put down something however I think flows more nicely to put the object in most cases between the verb and the particle okay now there is an exception with that when we’re talking about people and people like him I can’t say put down him I can’t say put down her I must use this pronoun in between the particle and the verb okay so now that we’ve gone over the basic function introduction concept of phrasal verbs we can take a look at them but let me recapitulate or let me give the main premise here okay don’t worry so much about phrasal verbs okay we get many students who stress about them it is good to understand them at least however there they are….. it’s a subject that takes time so don’t overwhelm yourself with them some of them can be very difficult but it is a non-essential part of your language it’s best you focus more on tense indirect questions and articles okay now I’m speaking to you Croatians okay once you refine these subjects these are I would say they are more important than learning phrasal verbs however phrasal verbs are fun okay let’s just admit it okay so here here’s a list okay now we’ve got this list of course here on our blog (tecajengleskog.com/frazalni-glagoli) I’ll just maximize this so okay so we could search for something okay let’s say like put okay now you see put has many many many particles behind it okay we put something down okay now the description which I gave you it’s not on here where we euthanize an animal okay it’s dark it’s a dark expression but it is often used so that’s not on here so you can make a note of that okay but you can also put someone down and not euthanize them so that means to degrade them okay to degrade someone I’m putting her down I’m putting him down that means I’m making them feel very little okay I’m making them feel very little so we have a whole list here and guess how you’re gonna learn these yeah ya have to you have to roll your sleeves up like this and you have to get down to business and you have to like any vocabulary term you must study them and more importantly I would write them down in your own words and then make them a part of your speech look there’s a difference between recognizing vocabulary and implementing vocabulary when I hear words and I can apply this to my Croatian, okay my Croatian is not so great all right let’s admit it. I can understand I can recognize words but there’s a difference between recognizing being aware of a word and using that word and how do we use that word we have to know and this applies to phrasal verbs we have to know the context in which we use these words this is applicable to phrasal verbs or any vocabulary that we’re learning okay you have to make it a part of your speech now how do we do that guess what guys it’s not very hard it’s like all these diets out there right there’s a diet for this there’s a diet for that well to me this is my philosophy it’s a pretty simple formula you eat less than you expend okay just like English all right you learn you have to consume this knowledge you have to use this vocabulary you have to make it a part of your speech simple as that huh wallah now writing is a great way to do this you can you can learn a word let’s say break down okay first phrasal verb write it down learn the definition and then write it out in your own words okay this is the main thing you have to start writing these words out in your own words because if you can’t do that how in the world would you be able to speak it if you can’t write it okay so let’s just practice let’s just do some practice here how about that now let me go to the to the let’s do vježba (practice in Croatian) we can do intermediate all right now whoa okay so we have to read the directions first now fill in the missing phrasal verbs A to D now this is helpful because we have phrasal verbs beginning with A to phrasal verbs beginning with D now we’re not going to do all of these I will just do a couple with you and hopefully I know them I’m just joking alright so John _______(blank) Kathy _______(blank) to lunch alright so we have to we have to kind of think of the context here what does a man do to a girl or woman to lunch maybe he asked because it must begin with A asked ok asked asked okay Cathy well when you invite someone you ask them out okay John asked Cathy out voila it’s very nice right. okay let’s just do one more and then we’ll kind of recap what we’ve talked about okay his mother _______(blank) him when he decided to start his own business okay it sounds like it sounds more like his mother was trying to support him because when you start your business you need a lot of support okay so I would say his mother possibly backed now look we have an object and this is what I was telling you about earlier we often put the objects between the verb and the particle so this is a pronoun, an objective pronoun okay we must put it between there’s no choice um number one for example I can say John asked out Cathy to lunch that is okay but if I changed Cathy to her I couldn’t say John asked out her to lunch it it doesn’t flow it doesn’t work doesn’t fit the ticket doesn’t fit the bill okay now his mother backed him up okay now this means she supported him I could say this in that way I could say it more explicitly his mother supported him when he decided to start his own business and that’s what I’m telling you also phrasal verbs are just a different way of expressing the same things we can use with with other verbs and forms okay and to summarize our short little lesson here okay number one phrasal verbs are cool all right we can use them and you can sound maybe more natural in your language but you have to be careful also you don’t want to overuse them it doesn’t want to sound like you’re trying to okay they have to flow they have to sound natural okay and the best way to do that is to very it was excuse me is to study them thoroughly okay study them right okay write out your own examples right now it’s your own sentences with phrasal verbs and lastly just don’t stress too much about phrasal verbs okay as we say there’s bigger fish to fry there are bigger fish to fry and phrasal verbs really aren’t one of them okay they’re nice to understand especially if we’re watching you know English movies and you want to know what something means well there are a lot of phrasal verbs used but focus if your if your grammar is a bit into insufficient you know with some certain things you know as I was saying tense, articles and indirect questions reported speech conditionals participle clauses everything all this stuff I think trumps and I’m not talking about Donald Trump okay look this term up it trumps phrasal verbs okay so do that and we will succeed you will succeed you can do it and also look if you want any or if you are interested in any online lessons feel free to drop us a line we’re here for you have we’re in Zagreb we teach all throughout of Europe and the world so hit us up if you have any questions additionally we might even start doing little snippets of grammar lectures for fun in this quarantine time to keep you guys busy but doing so live and if you do have any interest in that comment and other than that we’ll see you next time and enjoy your phrasal verbs may the phrasal verbs be with you and you with the phrasal verb bye-bye

  • Popis najćešćih frazalnih glagola

    frazni glagolDefinicijaPrimjerprijevod
    ask someone outinvite on a dateIvica asked Katarina out to lunch.pozvati van
    back someone upSupportHis mother backed him up when he decided to start his own business.poduprijeti
    blow upExplodeThe police found the man who wanted to blow up a plane.eksplodirati
    break downstop functioning (machine, vehicle)My computer broke down yesterday.pokvariti se
    break inforce entry to a buildingThe young man tried to break in but someone came by and he ran away.provaliti
    break upend a relationshipHe broke up with his girlfriend not long ago.razići se
    bring someone downmake unhappyFilms with sad endings always bring me down.ražalostiti
    bring someone upraise a childLinda brought up three children.odgojiti
    bring something upstart talking about a subjectThey start quarrelling whenever he brings up his ex.spomenuti
    call something offCancelThey called the meeting off because half of the people were too busy to come.otkazati
    calm downrelax after being angryCould you calm down. Everything will be okay.umiriti se
    not care for someone/somethingnot like (formal)I don't care for her opinion.mariti
    catch upget to the same point as someone elseI stopped and waited for my group to catch up.uhvatiti, dostići (doći do iste točke, gdje je netko drugi)
    check inarrive and register at a hotel or airportWhen we arrive at the hotel we have to check in.prijaviti se
    check outleave a hotelWe packed and check out of the hotel.odjaviti se
    check someone/something outlook at carefully, investigateThe police is checking out the call.provjeriti, istražiti
    come across somethingto find by coincidenceI sometimes come across protected when hiking in mountains.naći
    count on someone/somethingrely onI know I can count on him whenever I need anything.računati na
    cut back on somethingconsume lessYou should cut back on alcohol.smanjiti upotrebu
    do away with somethingDiscardIt's time to do away with all these old clothes.odbaciti
    dress upwear nice clothingThe club we are going to is quite fancy so I suggest you dress up.lijepo se obući
    drop in/by/overcome without an appointmentYou can drop in/by/over at my place any time you want.navratiti
    drop outquit a class, school, courseHe dropped out of school at the age of 15.napustiti (npr. školu)
    eat outeat at a restaurantDon't cook. We'll eat out tonight.jesti vani
    fall apartbreak into piecesMy shoes are falling apart. I have to buy anew pair.raspasti se
    figure outunderstand, answerTry to figure out what their intentions are because I would really like to know.shvatiti, sjetiti se nečeg
    fill into write information in blanksFill in the form with your name, address, and email address and give it back to us.popuniti
    find outDiscoverWe found out beautiful islands when travelling around by boat.otkriti
    find something outdiscoverWhen Tim found out that his friend had been lying he was really disappointed.shvatiti
    get along/onlike each otherI get along/on with my mother-in-law and visit her quite often.slagati se
    get awaygo on a vacationAfter all this work I can't wait to get away next week.ići na odmor
    get away withdo without being noticedThis time he won't get away with murder.izvući se, učiniti<
    get over somethingrecover from an illness, loss, or emotionIt took her a long time to get over her divorce.preboljeti;
    get round to somethingI hope I will get round to making a cake for my daughter's birthday next week.naći vremena za nešto
    get togethermeet (usually for social reasons)Let's get together for our school anniversary.naći se (s nekim)
    get upget out of bedMy brother got up at went to the seaside.ustati iz kreveta
    get upStandNo matter how many times I fell I always got up and kept trying.ustati
    give something awayruin a secretMy best friend gave the news about my pregnancy away by accident.otkriti tajnu
    give something awaygive something to someone for freeWhen my co-worker bought a new computer she gave away her old one.dati besplatno
    give inreluctantly stop or arguingMy friend didn't want to watch that comedy, but he gave in in the end.predati se (u svađi)
    give something upquit a habitI have to give up biting my nails.prestati imati naviku
    give upstop tryingNo matter how hard it gets you should never give up.odustati (prestati pokušavati)
    go after someonefollow someoneShe went after him with a knife and he ran away.slijediti nekog
    go against someonecompete, opposeI am very nervous since I am going against my biggest competitor tomorrow.suprotstaviti se nekomu/nečemu, nadmetati se
    go aheadProceedOur boss said we can go ahead with our plan.nastaviti
    go backreturn to a placeShe went back to work in the afternoon to some things.vratiti se
    go outleave home to go on a social eventI am going out for a drink with my friends.ići van
    go out withdateWe've been going out for a while now.ići van s nekim
    go over somethingReviewI went over my article for the last time and sent it to the publisher.pregledati
    go without somethingsuffer lack or deprivationThey were so poor that they had to go without food from time to time.biti bez
    grow apartstop being friends over timeAmanda and her sister grew apart after she had moved.otuđiti se
    grow backRegrowDon't worry. Your hair will soon grow back.ponovno narasti
    grow upbecome an adultWhen our children grow up we will have more time for each other.odrasti
    hand something inSubmitThe deadline to hand in the reports is May 12.predati
    hand something overgive (usually unwillingly)Johnny, now hand over the mobile phone to your father because he needs it.izručiti, predati
    hang instay positive (N.Amer., informal)Hang in there. Your hard work will sooner or later be repaid.držati se (ostati pozitivan)
    hang onwait a short time (informal)Hang on a second. I'll come with you.počekati
    hang outspend time relaxing (informal)I hang out with him and have a good time almost every weekend.družiti se
    hang upend a phone callHe was so angry that he just hung up.poklopiti, prekinuti vezu
    hold someone/something backprevent from doing/goingI had to hold my friend back when they were teasing him about his sister.spriječiti (koga/što)
    hold something backhide an emotionShe was hardly holding back her tears when they were leaving.zadržati, sakriti (emociju)
    hold onwait a short timePlease hold on. Ms Smith will be back in a second.počekati
    hold someone/somethingupRobHave you heard that someone held the post up last evening?opljačkati
    keep on doing somethingcontinue doingKeep on with the good work.nastaviti
    keep from someone somethingnot tellWe kept the pregnancy from our friends initially.skrivati,tajiti
    keep someone/something outstop from enteringKeep the children out of the office please.ne puštati unutra
    let someone downfail to support or help, disappointJohn has never let me down and I am really happy for having him in my life.ostaviti na cjedilu, razočarati (nekog),
    let someone inallow to enterThe old lady didn't let the man in because she didn't know him.pustiti nekog unutra
    look after someone/somethingtake care ofI had to look after my younger brother when my parents were away.čuvati
    look down on someonethink less of, consider inferiorI don't know why she looks down on everybody. Who does she think she is?gledati na nekog svisoka, omalovažavati
    look for someone/somethingtry toI'm looking for my Have you seen it anywhere?tražiti
    look forward to somethingbe excited about the futureI really look forward to meeting you.veseliti se
    look into somethinginvestigateShe was looking into the possibilities of buying a franchise.istražiti
    look outbe careful, vigilant, and take noticeLook out! This slippery.paziti
    look something overcheck, examineWhen I was looking over my seminar paper I found three grammatical mistakes.pregledati
    look something upsearch and information in a reference book ordatabaseI can look the meaning of this word up in the dictionary.potražiti
    look up to someonehave a lot of respect forI looked up to my grandmother when I was a child.diviti se (nekom)
    make something upinvent, lie about somethingThe boy says the story about the rape is not true and that the girl has made it up.izmisliti što
    make upforgive each otherWe refused to see each other for two weeks but we have made up now.pomiriti se s kim
    make someone upapply cosmetics toI made my friend up for the date.našminkati koga
    mix something upconfuse two things / rearrange something / confusedI mixed the coke and pepsi up. Can you tell?pomiješati, zamijeniti
    pass awayDieAfter a long and painful struggle with cancer my grandfather passedaway.preminuti
    pass outFaintI almost passed out because of all the crowd and bad air.onesvijestiti se
    pay someone backreturn owed moneyI'll pay you back that euro next time we see each other.vratiti kome novac
    pay for somethingbe punished for doing something badI will make sure he will pay for being so mean to you.platiti
    pick something outChooseI picked out these jeans for you to try on.izabrati
    point someone/something outindicate with yourCan you point that actress out when she appears on the screen?pokazati (prstom)
    put something downput what you are holding on a surface orYou can put the luggage down and have some rest because the planeis delayed.odložiti
    put someone downinsult, make someone feel stupidThe man was puting his wife down because of her job.vrijeđati koga
    put something offPostponeWe put off the appointment because ofher illness.odgoditi
    put up with someone/somethingTolerateIt's difficult to put up with him when he is so stubborn.podnositi
    put something onput clothing/accessories on your bodyI put on some make-up and went to work.obući
    run into someone/somethingmeet unexpectedlyGeorge ran into his elementary schoolteacher while walking down the street.naljeteti na koga/ što (slučajno)
    run over someone/somethingdrive a vehicle over a person or thingWhen I was driving home I ran over a cat. It jumped on the road and I couldn't do anyrhing.pregaziti koga/što
    run outhave none leftWe ran out of sugar so I couldn't make a cake.ponestati
    shop aroundcompare pricesSue loves shopping around before buyinganything.uspoređivati cijene (po trgovinama)
    show offact special in front of othersHe loves showing off his muscles in front of the girlsbahatiti se praviti se važan
    stick with somethingcontinue doing something,Stick to your goals and you will succeeddržati se čega, ograničiti se najednu stvar
    switch something offstop the energy turn offI switched off the TV and went to bed.ugasiti
    switch something onstart the energy turn onCan you switch on the radio? It would be nice to hear some music.upaliti
    take after someoneresemble a family memberI take after my father. We are both lazy.biti nalik (karakterno) ili sličiti
    take something apartpurposely break into piecesHe took the computer apart and repaired it.rastaviti što
    take something backreturn an itemMandy had to take her phone back because it didn't work.vratiti
    take offstart toI am always nervous when the plane takesoff.poletjeti
    take something offremove something (usually clothing)The doctor told me to take off my shirt.svući, skinuti
    take something outremove from a place or thingKim took out her handkerchief and blew her nose.izvaditi
    take someone outpay for someone to go somewhere with youHe said he wanted to take me out to a Thai restaurant for dinner.voditi koga van
    think something overConsiderI really need time to think it over before Idecide.razmisliti
    throw something awaydispose ofI had to throw some of my old clothes away because I didn't have room for the new ones.baciti
    turn something downdecrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)Please turn the radio down otherwise the neighbours might complain.smanjiti (zvuk, toplinu, svjetlo)
    turn something downRefuseThey turned the student down because he hadno work experience.otkloniti, odbiti
    turn something offstop the energy switch offCould you, please, turn the radio off and start studying?ugasiti
    turn something upincrease the level of somethingCan you turn the heat up? I'm freezing!pojačati (zvuk, temperaturu, svijetlo)
    turn upappear suddenlyLarry turned up unexpectedly and surprised everyone.pojaviti se
    try something onsample clothingShe tried the dress on, but it was too big.probati (obleko)
    try something outTestI would have to try this car out before I buy it.pokušati (u smislu testirati)
    wake upstop sleepingWe have to wake up at six at the latest to catch our train.probuditi se
    warm upprepare body for exerciseStretching exercises warm up our bodies and prevent injuries.zagrijati se
    wear offfade awayWater-resistant mascara doesn't wear off so fast.nestati, ugasiti se
    work outExerciseShe works out a lot to stay in shape.vježbati
    work outbe successfulEverything has thankfully worked out all right.uspjeti (uspješno završiti)
  • Prijedlozi su ostali iza glagola ali zajedno sa glagolom čine cjelinu, frazu, koja dobije neko novo značenje.

    To značenje može biti, kao i u hrvatskom:

    – Literal, doslovno
    – Idiomatic, preneseno

    Princip je isti, pravilo je različito, na glagol dodajemo prijedlog ali iza glagola:

    uzmimo npr. glagol look, gledati i dodamo mu, naravno iza njega prijedlog up, gore

    1. Literal, doslovno značenje
      • He looked up and smiled.
      • On je podigao(po+digao) pogled i nasmijao se. (definiramo pravac)
    2. Idiomatic, preneseno ili preciznije to je fraza sa novim značenjem
      • He looked up the word in the dictionary.
      • Ovdje je značenje – to search for, potražiti

    Postoji više vrsta frazalnih glagola u engleskom jeziku.

    Razvrstati ćemo ih nekom drugom prilikom. Vrijeme je za par savjeta.

    Kako učiti i naučiti frazalne glagole u engleskom

    Ne postoji lak način, sorry. Ali nije potrebno ni komplicirati. Najgora moguća odluka je uzeti listu frazalnih glagola i bubati ih napamet. Pozlit će vam se vrlo brzo, a i neće imati efekta.

    Ja to ne preporučujem, uopće ne pomažem svojim đacima, čak im i odmažem jer ne želim da im izdiktiram značenja koja će oni samo naučiti i zaboraviti.

    Jedini pravi način je koristiti ih, uočiti ih prilikom upotrebe engleskog jezika i na taj način proširiti vokabular.

    Ako pričamo o frazalnim glagolima kad je pitanju test ili pismeni u školi – pa svi oni, koje je potrebno znati se već nalaze u udžbeniku, malo truda i to je to.

    • Jim asked Kim out. = Jim je pozvao Kim van.

    Pojedinačan glagol se može pojaviti u kombinaciji s različitim česticama/ prijedlozima/ prilozima i značenja tih kombinacija se međusobno razlikuju. Pogledajmo npr. glagol look:

    • My older brother looked after me when I was younger 
    • Moj stariji brat je pazio na mene, dok sam bila mlada.
    • Look at you! You’re so beautiful in this dress! =
    • Pogledaj se! Tako si lijepa u toj haljini!
    • I am looking for my keys. Have you seen them anywhere?
    • Tražim svoje ključeve. Jesi li ih negdje vidio?
    • Look out! The floor is slippery.
    • Pazi! Pod je sklizak.

    Klikni na slike i igraj

    Intermediate

    Advanced

    Frazni glagoli A-G

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