Frazni glagoli u engleskom jeziku, prefiksacija u hrvatskom i par praktičnih savjeta za učenje

Pregled sadržaja

Jedna od pojava glagola u engleskom jeziku, koja je u hrvatskom vrlo rijetka, je ta da se dodavanjem odgovarajućeg prijedloga i priloga tvore novi glagoli, koji se po svom značenju razlikuju od osnovnog glagola. Frazalni glagoli su, dakle, kombinacija glagola i prijedloga, čestice ili priloga. Značenje frazalnog glagola obično ne možemo razumjeti na temelju pojedinačnih riječi koje ga tvore. Frazalni glagoli su zato hrvatskim i drugim stranim govornicima engleskog jezika često problematični.

Frazni glagoli i engleski jezik

Frazalni glagoli, Phrasal verbs,  to je odrednica koja nam je potrebna za današnju temu.

Frazalni glagoli su veoma bitni u engleskom jeziku i komunikaciji.

Pravilo je da nekoga tko savršeno govori engleski možete razlikovati od rođenog Britanca baš po upotrebi frazalnih glagola.

Da bi objasnili o čemu se tu radi, da počnemo sa pričom, pa ćemo poslije na gramatička pitanja.

Obavezno pažljivo čitajte tekst do kraja kako bi savladali osnovnu temu:

Frazalni glagoli u engleskom jeziku

Kada pogledamo (davno, davno) unazad primijetit ćemo da su se razni jezici, zbog potrebe preciznog izražavanja dodatno razvijali na različite načine.

Tvorba glagola u hrvatskom jeziku – prefiksacija

Recimo u hrvatskom jeziku, uzet ćemo primjer glagola trčati.
Sam, osnovni glagol trčati ne može pokriti sve jezične potrebe koje mi imamo da bi precizno prenijeli neku informaciju (bez korištenja pantomime).
Evo primjera:

  1. On je trčao.
  2. On je dotrčao.
  3. On je otrčao.

U sva 3 primjera imamo osnovni glagol trčati na koji smo dodali različite prefikse – do, o.

Ovim postupkom smo dobili drugo značenje osnovnog glagola i precizno prenijeli informaciju sa malo riječi, konkretno ovdje smo se bavili pravcem trčanja.

Postupak stvaranja, tvorbi složenica u hrvatskom jeziku, koji se sastoji od dodavanja prefiksa (dijelovi riječi, najčešće nastali od prijedloga) ispred riječi se naziva prefiksacija.

Kad sam već spomenuo prefiksaciju, samo da dodam da se ovakvim postupkom u hrvatskom najčešće grade glagoli ali mogu i neke druge vrste riječi: sugovornik, premršav

Da se vratimo na glagole. Dodavanjem prefiksa na glagol dobijemo glagol sa novim značenjem. Ponekad se dogodi da jedan glagol može i u našem jeziku imati, poslije ovakve intervencije 2 značenja:

 doslovno
– preneseno

Primjer:
– glagol letjeti, na njega dodajemo prefiks po-, i dobijemo novi glagol poletjeti.

– doslovno značenje
Ptica je poletjela uplašena iznenadnom bukom.

– preneseno značenje
Poletjela mu je u zagrljaj.

Frazalni glagoli u engleskom jeziku, objašnjenje


Do sada smo već naučili kako je nastao engleski jezik.


Znamo da spada u grupu germanskih jezika, kao recimo, njemački. U njemačkom je taj razvoj jezika otišao u drugom pravcu.


Engleski jezik nije u svom razvoju krenuo u tom pravcu. Je li za to krivo osvajanje od strane Normana 1066. godine, da ne pretpostavljamo. Povijest kaže da su u to vrijeme već postojali frazalni glagoli ali se na njih gledalo kao na primitivan, narodski govor.


Shakespeare je bio veliki zagovornik korišćenja frazalnih glagola i to je to. Smatra se da je ipak 20. stoljeće donijelo, najveći broj frazalnih glagola u engleski jezik.


Znači u engleskom nije došlo do postupka prefiksacije.

Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit. Ut elit tellus, luctus nec ullamcorper mattis, pulvinar dapibus leo.

Slušanje: Klikni ‘start’ i napišite frazni glagol koji čujete

  • Popis najćešćih frazalnih glagola

    frazni glagolDefinicijaPrimjerprijevod
    ask someone outinvite on a dateIvica asked Katarina out
    to lunch.
    pozvati van
    back someone upSupportHis mother backed him up when he decided to start his own business.poduprijeti
    blow upExplodeThe police found the
    man who wanted to
    blow up a plane.
    eksplodirati
    break downstop functioning
    (machine, vehicle)
    My computer broke down yesterday.pokvariti se
    break inforce entry to a buildingThe young man tried to break in but someone came by and he ran away.provaliti
    break upend a relationshipHe broke up with his
    girlfriend not long ago.
    razići se
    bring someone downmake unhappyFilms with sad endings always bring me down.ražalostiti
    bring someone upraise a childLinda brought up three
    children.
    odgojiti
    bring something upstart talking about a
    subject
    They start quarrelling whenever he brings up his ex.spomenuti
    call something offCancelThey called the meeting off because half of the people were too busy to
    come.
    otkazati
    calm downrelax after being angryCould you calm down. Everything will be okay.umiriti se
    not care for
    someone/something
    not like (formal)I don’t care for her
    opinion.
    mariti
    catch upget to the same point as
    someone else
    I stopped and waited for my group to catch up.uhvatiti, dostići
    (doći do iste točke, gdje je netko drugi)
    check inarrive and register at a
    hotel or airport
    When we arrive at the hotel we have to check in.prijaviti se
    check outleave a hotelWe packed and check
    out of the hotel.
    odjaviti se
    check someone/something outlook at carefully, investigateThe police is checking out the call.provjeriti, istražiti
    come across somethingto find by coincidenceI sometimes come
    across protected when hiking in
    mountains.
    naći
    count on
    someone/something
    rely onI know I can count on
    him whenever I need anything.
    računati na
    cut back on somethingconsume lessYou should cut back on
    alcohol.
    smanjiti upotrebu
    do away with somethingDiscardIt’s time to do away
    with all these old clothes.
    odbaciti
    dress upwear nice clothingThe club we are going to is quite fancy so I suggest you dress up.lijepo se obući
    drop in/by/overcome without an
    appointment
    You can drop in/by/over at my place any time
    you want.
    navratiti
    drop outquit a class, school,
    course
    He dropped out of
    school at the age of 15.
    napustiti (npr. školu)
    eat outeat at a restaurantDon’t cook. We’ll eat
    out tonight.
    jesti vani
    fall apartbreak into piecesMy shoes are falling
    apart. I have to buy anew pair.
    raspasti se
    figure outunderstand, answerTry to figure out what their intentions are
    because I would really like to know.
    shvatiti, sjetiti se nečeg
    fill into write information in
    blanks
    Fill in the form with
    your name, address, and email address and give it back to us.
    popuniti
    find outDiscoverWe found out beautiful islands when travelling around by boat.otkriti
    find something outdiscoverWhen Tim found out
    that his friend had been lying he was really
    disappointed.
    shvatiti
    get along/onlike each otherI get along/on with my mother-in-law and visit her quite often.slagati se
    get awaygo on a vacationAfter all this work I can’t wait to get away next week.ići na odmor
    get away withdo without being noticedThis time he won’t get away with murder.izvući se, učiniti<
    get over somethingrecover from an illness, loss, or emotionIt took her a long time to get over her divorce.preboljeti;
    get round to somethingI hope I will get round to making a cake for my daughter’s birthday next
    week.
    naći vremena za nešto
    get togethermeet (usually for social
    reasons)
    Let’s get together for our school anniversary.naći se (s nekim)
    get upget out of bedMy brother got up at
    went to the seaside.
    ustati iz kreveta
    get upStandNo matter how many
    times I fell I always got up and kept trying.
    ustati
    give something awayruin a secretMy best friend gave the news about my pregnancy away by
    accident.
    otkriti tajnu
    give something awaygive something to someone for freeWhen my co-worker
    bought a new computer she gave away her old one.
    dati besplatno
    give inreluctantly stop or arguingMy friend didn’t want to watch that comedy, but he gave in in the end.predati se (u svađi)
    give something upquit a habitI have to give up biting my nails.prestati imati naviku
    give upstop tryingNo matter how hard it gets you should never give up.odustati (prestati pokušavati)
    go after someonefollow someoneShe went after him with a knife and he ran away.slijediti nekog
    go against someonecompete, opposeI am very nervous since I am going against my biggest competitor
    tomorrow.
    suprotstaviti se
    nekomu/nečemu, nadmetati se
    go aheadProceedOur boss said we can go
    ahead with our plan.
    nastaviti
    go backreturn to a placeShe went back to work in the afternoon to some things.vratiti se
    go outleave home to go on a
    social event
    I am going out for a drink with my friends.ići van
    go out withdateWe’ve been going out for a while now.ići van s nekim
    go over somethingReviewI went over my article
    for the last time and
    sent it to the publisher.
    pregledati
    go without somethingsuffer lack or deprivationThey were so poor that they had to go without food from time to time.biti bez
    grow apartstop being friends over
    time
    Amanda and her sister grew apart after she had moved.otuđiti se
    grow backRegrowDon’t worry. Your hair
    will soon grow back.
    ponovno narasti
    grow upbecome an adultWhen our children grow up we will have more time for each other.odrasti
    hand something inSubmitThe deadline to hand in
    the reports is May 12.
    predati
    hand something overgive (usually unwillingly)Johnny, now hand over the mobile phone to your father because he
    needs it.
    izručiti, predati
    hang instay positive (N.Amer.,
    informal)
    Hang in there. Your
    hard work will sooner or later be repaid.
    držati se (ostati pozitivan)
    hang onwait a short time
    (informal)
    Hang on a second. I’ll come with you.počekati
    hang outspend time relaxing
    (informal)
    I hang out with him and have a good time almost every weekend.družiti se
    hang upend a phone callHe was so angry that he
    just hung up.
    poklopiti, prekinuti vezu
    hold
    someone/something back
    prevent from doing/goingI had to hold my friend back when they were teasing him about his
    sister.
    spriječiti (koga/što)
    hold something backhide an emotionShe was hardly holding back her tears when they were leaving.zadržati, sakriti (emociju)
    hold onwait a short timePlease hold on. Ms
    Smith will be back in a second.
    počekati
    hold
    someone/somethingup
    RobHave you heard that
    someone held the post up last evening?
    opljačkati
    keep on doing somethingcontinue doingKeep on with the good
    work.
    nastaviti
    keep from someone somethingnot tellWe kept the pregnancy from our friends initially.skrivati,tajiti
    keep someone/something outstop from enteringKeep the children out of the office please.ne puštati unutra
    let someone downfail to support or help,
    disappoint
    John has never let me down and I am really happy for having him in my life.ostaviti na cjedilu, razočarati (nekog),
    let someone inallow to enterThe old lady didn’t let the man in because she didn’t know him.pustiti nekog unutra
    look after
    someone/something
    take care ofI had to look after my
    younger brother when my parents were away.
    čuvati
    look down on someonethink less of, consider inferiorI don’t know why she looks down on
    everybody. Who does she think she is?
    gledati na nekog svisoka,
    omalovažavati
    look for
    someone/something
    try toI’m looking for my Have you seen it anywhere?tražiti
    look forward to somethingbe excited about the futureI really look forward to meeting you.veseliti se
    look into somethinginvestigateShe was looking into
    the possibilities of buying a franchise.
    istražiti
    look outbe careful, vigilant, and
    take notice
    Look out! This slippery.paziti
    look something overcheck, examineWhen I was looking
    over my seminar paper I found three grammatical
    mistakes.
    pregledati
    look something upsearch and information in a
    reference book ordatabase
    I can look the meaning of this word up in the dictionary.potražiti
    look up to someonehave a lot of respect forI looked up to my
    grandmother when I was a child.
    diviti se (nekom)
    make something upinvent, lie about
    something
    The boy says the story about the rape is not true and that the girl has made it up.izmisliti što
    make upforgive each otherWe refused to see each other for two weeks but we have made up now.pomiriti se s kim
    make someone upapply cosmetics toI made my friend up for
    the date.
    našminkati koga
    mix something upconfuse two things / rearrange something / confusedI mixed the coke and pepsi up. Can you tell?pomiješati, zamijeniti
    pass awayDieAfter a long and painful struggle with cancer my grandfather passedaway.preminuti
    pass outFaintI almost passed out
    because of all the crowd and bad air.
    onesvijestiti se
    pay someone backreturn owed moneyI’ll pay you back that
    euro next time we see each other.
    vratiti kome novac
    pay for somethingbe punished for doing
    something bad
    I will make sure he will pay for being so mean to you.platiti
    pick something outChooseI picked out these jeans
    for you to try on.
    izabrati
    point
    someone/something out
    indicate with yourCan you point that
    actress out when she appears on the screen?
    pokazati (prstom)
    put something downput what you are holding on a surface orYou can put the luggage down and have some
    rest because the planeis delayed.
    odložiti
    put someone downinsult, make someone
    feel stupid
    The man was puting his wife down because of her job.vrijeđati koga
    put something offPostponeWe put off the
    appointment because ofher illness.
    odgoditi
    put up with
    someone/something
    TolerateIt’s difficult to put up with him when he is so stubborn.podnositi
    put something onput clothing/accessories
    on your body
    I put on some make-up and went to work.obući
    run into
    someone/something
    meet unexpectedlyGeorge ran into his
    elementary schoolteacher while walking
    down the street.
    naljeteti na koga/ što (slučajno)
    run over
    someone/something
    drive a vehicle over a person or thingWhen I was driving
    home I ran over a cat. It jumped on the road and
    I couldn’t do anyrhing.
    pregaziti koga/što
    run outhave none leftWe ran out of sugar so I
    couldn’t make a cake.
    ponestati
    shop aroundcompare pricesSue loves shopping
    around before buyinganything.
    uspoređivati cijene (po trgovinama)
    show offact special in front of othersHe loves showing off his muscles in front of the girlsbahatiti se praviti se važan
    stick with somethingcontinue doing something,Stick to your goals and you will succeeddržati se čega, ograničiti se najednu stvar
    switch something offstop the energy turn offI switched off the TV and went to bed.ugasiti
    switch something
    on
    start the energy turn onCan you switch on the radio? It would be nice to hear some music.upaliti
    take after someoneresemble a family
    member
    I take after my father. We are both lazy.biti nalik
    (karakterno) ili
    sličiti
    take something apartpurposely break into piecesHe took the computer apart and repaired it.rastaviti što
    take something backreturn an itemMandy had to take her
    phone back because it
    didn’t work.
    vratiti
    take offstart toI am always nervous
    when the plane takesoff.
    poletjeti
    take something offremove something
    (usually clothing)
    The doctor told me to take off my shirt.svući, skinuti
    take something outremove from a place or
    thing
    Kim took out her
    handkerchief and blew her nose.
    izvaditi
    take someone outpay for someone to go
    somewhere with you
    He said he wanted to take me out to a Thai restaurant for dinner.voditi koga van
    think something overConsiderI really need time to
    think it over before Idecide.
    razmisliti
    throw something awaydispose ofI had to throw some of my old clothes away because I didn’t have
    room for the new ones.
    baciti
    turn something downdecrease the volume or strength (heat, light etc)Please turn the radio down otherwise the neighbours might
    complain.
    smanjiti (zvuk, toplinu, svjetlo)
    turn something downRefuseThey turned the student down because he hadno work experience.otkloniti, odbiti
    turn something offstop the energy switch offCould you, please, turn the radio off and start studying?ugasiti
    turn something upincrease the level of somethingCan you turn the heat up? I’m freezing!pojačati (zvuk, temperaturu, svijetlo)
    turn upappear suddenlyLarry turned up
    unexpectedly and surprised everyone.
    pojaviti se
    try something onsample clothingShe tried the dress on,
    but it was too big.
    probati (obleko)
    try something outTestI would have to try this car out before I buy it.pokušati (u smislu testirati)
    wake upstop sleepingWe have to wake up at six at the latest to catch our train.probuditi se
    warm upprepare body for exerciseStretching exercises
    warm up our bodies and prevent injuries.
    zagrijati se
    wear offfade awayWater-resistant mascara doesn’t wear off so fast.nestati, ugasiti se
    work outExerciseShe works out a lot to
    stay in shape.
    vježbati
    work outbe successfulEverything has thankfully worked out all right.uspjeti (uspješno završiti)
  • Prijedlozi su ostali iza glagola ali zajedno sa glagolom čine cjelinu, frazu, koja dobije neko novo značenje.

    To značenje može biti, kao i u hrvatskom:

    – Literal, doslovno
    – Idiomatic, preneseno

    Princip je isti, pravilo je različito, na glagol dodajemo prijedlog ali iza glagola:

    uzmimo npr. glagol look, gledati i dodamo mu, naravno iza njega prijedlog up, gore

    1. Literal, doslovno značenje
      • He looked up and smiled.
      • On je podigao(po+digao) pogled i nasmijao se. (definiramo pravac)
    2. Idiomatic, preneseno ili preciznije to je fraza sa novim značenjem
      • He looked up the word in the dictionary.
      • Ovdje je značenje – to search for, potražiti

    Postoji više vrsta frazalnih glagola u engleskom jeziku.

    Razvrstati ćemo ih nekom drugom prilikom. Vrijeme je za par savjeta.

    Kako učiti i naučiti frazalne glagole u engleskom

    Ne postoji lak način, sorry. Ali nije potrebno ni komplicirati. Najgora moguća odluka je uzeti listu frazalnih glagola i bubati ih napamet. Pozlit će vam se vrlo brzo, a i neće imati efekta.

    Ja to ne preporučujem, uopće ne pomažem svojim đacima, čak im i odmažem jer ne želim da im izdiktiram značenja koja će oni samo naučiti i zaboraviti.

    Jedini pravi način je koristiti ih, uočiti ih prilikom upotrebe engleskog jezika i na taj način proširiti vokabular.

    Ako pričamo o frazalnim glagolima kad je pitanju test ili pismeni u školi – pa svi oni, koje je potrebno znati se već nalaze u udžbeniku, malo truda i to je to.

    • Jim asked Kim out. = Jim je pozvao Kim van.

    Pojedinačan glagol se može pojaviti u kombinaciji s različitim česticama/ prijedlozima/ prilozima i značenja tih kombinacija se međusobno razlikuju. Pogledajmo npr. glagol look:

    • My older brother looked after me when I was younger 
    • Moj stariji brat je pazio na mene, dok sam bila mlada.
    • Look at you! You’re so beautiful in this dress! =
    • Pogledaj se! Tako si lijepa u toj haljini!
    • I am looking for my keys. Have you seen them anywhere?
    • Tražim svoje ključeve. Jesi li ih negdje vidio?
    • Look out! The floor is slippery.
    • Pazi! Pod je sklizak.

    Klikni na slike i igraj

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