The Croat

and the Comma

 An antidote to comma chaos

Žudnja Hrvata za zarezima, i sukob koji predstavljaju s engleskom gramatikom – Tajna ljubavna veza razotkrivena!

U engleskom, najbolje je pisati kratko i slatko. Trebali bi uvijek pričati i pisati sa jasnoćom I konciznošću. Nastavljanje rečenice može dovesti do zabune i gramatičke pogreške. U hrvatskom, uobičajena je praksa da se rečenice nastavljaju sve dok možemo držati dah. Pisci kao Miroslav Krleža su zloglasni po tome, npr. u sljedeće dvije rečenice:

“Naše srce, kada je već o srcu riječ, nije vodovodna cijev ni rezervoar, dok gospoda ordinarijusi i primarijusi, pušeći cigarete i pijući konjak, to ne razumiju, jer ta gospoda učenjaci u životu nisu pročitala ni jednog jedinog feljtona, ni stiha, ti mudraci pojma uopće nemaju da je poezija nerazmjerno važnija od njihove arteriosklerozne hidrauličke mudrosti, oni puše i piju, a nama brane cigarete i alkohol, dakako napajajući nas mlijekom od tuberkuloznih krava da bi nas, s jedne strane imunizirali, a s druge, zarazili tuberkulozom.”

“Gospoda pojma nemaju da je ljudsko srce svileni barjak, i da ono osjeća svaki najneviniji dašak zefira, pa i telefonske žice pjevaju na vjetru kao harfe, a ljudsko srce nije samo telefonska žica, ono je čitav orkestar od harfa i cimbala, od violina i truba, naše srce pjeva trijumfalno i raste ritmom simfonične poeme, a nije hidrant, kao što misle ovi vodovodni majstori, nego – suluda oluja od tisuća i tisuća instrumenata, a za ustalasalo more ovog našeg suludog koncerta uho mnogopoštovane gospode medicine je gluho.”

 

Uffffff! That’s a lot of commas!

Nažalost po Hrvate, to nije moguće u engleskom. Zarez, o kojem ćemo malo više razgovarati, nije dio koji se slobodno koristi u nastavljanju rečenica. Gornji odlomak je primjer nečega što zovemo rečenični niz. U ovom blogu promotrit ćemo rečenične nizove, uključujući Hrvatima drag ‘the comma-splice’ i   razrješiti ih sa pravilnim alternativama. 

Rečenični nizovi u engleskom su gramatički netočni; zvuče jako loše i trebali bi ih iskorijeniti iz upotrebe. Nažalost, računalni gramatički provjerenici nisu dobri u identificiranju takvih nizova. Oni će prepoznati podjelu zarezom (dvije nezavisne rečenice razdijeljene zarezom), ali su zadovoljni ako nema interpunkcije između rečenica.

Rečenični niz (nekad nazvana i “spojena rečenica”) ima najmanje dva dijela, od kojih oba mogu stajati sami (drugim riječima, dvije nezavisne rečenice), ali su ta dva dijela ‘zaljepljena’ umjesto da su propisno spojena. Pogledajte i dio koji opisuje što se može dogoditi između dvije nezavisne rečenice.

 

Duljina rečenice nema nikakve veze s tim je li rečenica rečenični niz ili nije; biti ‘run-on rečenica’ znači imati strukturnu manu koja može pogoditi I vrlo kratke rečenice.

✘ The sun is high, put some sunblock on.

Sunce je jako, stavi kremu za sunčanje.

Krajnje duga rečenica može biti teška za izgovorit, ali može biti strukturno ispravno. Pogledajte rečenicu s 280 riječi koja je savršeno ispravna (strukturno):

“The purity of his judicial character, while on the bench; the faithfulness of his public service in subsequent capacities; his devotedness to his party, and the rigid consistency with which he had adhered to its principles, or, at all events, kept pace with its organized movements; his remarkable zeal as president of a Bible society; his unimpeachable integrity as treasurer of a widow’s and orphan’s fund; his benefits to horticulture, by producing two much-esteemed varieties of the pear, and to agriculture, through the agency of the famous Pyncheon-bull; the cleanliness of his moral deportment, for a great many years past; the severity with which he had frowned upon, and finally cast off, an expensive and dissipated son, delaying forgiveness until within the final quarter of an hour of the young man’s life; his prayers at morning and eventide, and graces at meal-time; his efforts in furtherance of the temperance cause; his confining himself, since the last attack of the gout, to five diurnal glasses of old sherry wine; the snowy whiteness of his linen, the polish of his boots, the handsomeness of his gold-headed cane, the square and roomy fashion of his coat, and the fineness of its material, and, in general, the studied propriety of his dress and equipment; the scrupulousness with which he paid public notice, in the street, by a bow, a lifting of the hat, a nod, or a motion of the hand, to all and sundry his acquaintances, rich or poor; the smile of broad benevolence wherewith he made it a point to gladden the whole world;–what room could possibly be found for darker traits, in a portrait made up of lineaments like these?”

– Nathaniel Hawthorne

The House of the Seven Gables

Kada su dvije nezavisne rečenice povezane samo s zarezom, tvore rečenični niz koja se naziva ‘podjela zarezom’. Gornji primjer (o kremi za sunčanje) je podjela zarezom. U engleskom kada koristimo zarez kako bi povezali dvije nezavisne rečenice, mora stajati i veznik (i, ali, za, niti, već, ili, tako da).

Rečenični nizovi se događaju u sljedećim okolnostima:

I

Kada druga nezavisna rečenica daje uputu o onome što je rečeno u prvoj rečenici.

Primjer:

✘ This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it, you should start studying right away.

Sljedeće poglavlje ima puno teških informacija, trebao/trebala/trebali bi odmah početi učiti.

Mogli bi staviti točku gdje je zarez i početi novu rečenicu:

 ✓   This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it. You should start studying right away.

Točka-zarez bi isto bila dobra opcija:

 This next chapter has a lot of difficult information in it; you should start studying right away.

II

Kada su dvije nezavisne rečenice povezane prijelaznim izrazom (vezničkim prilogom) kao npr. međutim, povrh toga, štoviše.

Primjer:

✘ Mr. Belko has sent his four children to ivy-league colleges, however, he has sacrificed his health working day and night in that dusty bakery.

Gospodin Belko je poslao četvero svoje djece na elitne fakultete, međutim, žrtvovao je svoje zdravlje radeći dan i noć u toj prašnjavoj pekari.

Ponovno, gdje taj prvi zarez stoji, mogli smo koristiti točku i početi novu rečenicu ili koristiti točku-zarez.

✓ Mr. Belko has sent his four children to ivy-league colleges. However, he has sacrificed his health working day and night in that dusty bakery.

✓ Mr. Belko has sent his four children to ivy-league colleges; however,he has sacrificed his health working day and night in that dusty bakery.

III

Kada druga nezavisna rečenica ima zamjenicu koja je povezuje s prvom nezavisnom rečenicom.

Primjer:

✘ This computer doesn’t make sense to me, it came without a manual.

Ovo računalo mi nema smisla, došlo je bez uputa.

✘ Most of those computers in the Learning Assistance Center are broken already, this proves my point about American computer manufacturers.

Većina računala u Centru za pomoć pri učenju su već pokvarena, što dokazuje moju poantu o američkim proizvođačima.

Premda su ove dvije rečenice poprilično kratke (u primjeru 1) i ideje usko povezane, ovo je rečenični niz. Trebamo staviti točku gdje stoji zarez.

✓ This computer doesn’t make sense to me; it came without a manual.

 Most of those computers in the Learning Assistance Center are broken already; this proves my point about American computer manufacturers.

Test yourself

Vježbaj gramatiku engleskog s

Jeopardy-om

Splicing with the Stars

Famous author splices

 “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way—in short, the period was so far like the present period, that some of the noisiest authorities insisted on its being received, for good or evil, in the superlative degree of comparison only.”

– Charles Dickens

A Tale of Two Cities

“It was all very well to say ‘Drink me,’ but the wise little Alice was not going to that in a hurry. ‘No, I’ll look first,’ she said, ‘and see whether it’s marked “poison” or not’; for she had read several nice little histories about children who had got burnt, and eaten up by wild beasts and other unpleasant things, all because they would not remember the simple rules their friends had taught them: such as, that a red-hot poker will burn you if you hold it too long; and that if you cut your finger very deeply with a knife, it usually bleeds; and she had never forgotten that, if you drink much from a bottle marked ‘poison,’ it is almost certain to disagree with you, sooner or later.”

– Lewis Carroll

Alice in Wonderland

“If you really want to hear about it, the first thing you’ll probably want to know is where I was born, and what my lousy childhood was like, and how my parents were occupied and all before they had me, and all that David Copperfield kind of crap, but I don’t feel like going into it, if you want to know the truth.”

– J. D. Salinger

The Catcher in the Rye

 “He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream and he had gone eighty-four days now without taking a fish.”

– Ernest Hemingway

The Old Man And The Sea

“Clare takes my hand, and we stand together, in the crowd, and if there is a God, then God, let me just stand here quietly and inconspicuously, here and now, here and now.”

– Audrey Niffenegger

The Time Traveler’s Wife

 “Go limp and tumble to the ground and let the muscles unwind and not speak and not budge until your buddies picked you up and lifted you into the chopper that would roar and dip its nose and carry you off to the world.”

– Tim O’Brien

The Things They Carried

 

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