Članovi u engleskom jeziku
U hrvatskom jeziku članovi ne postoje. Zato tu griješe mnogi učenici i studenti engleskog jezika. Postoje pravila korištenja, ali su ona ponekad suptilna i nedorečena. Potrebno je dosta iskustva u korištenju engleskog jezika kako bi se članovi u engleskom jeziku razumjeli i pravilno primijenili.
“Članove u engleskom jeziku smatramo vrstom pridjeva.”
Određeni i neodređeni članovi u engleskom jeziku
Engleski jezik ima tri člana, jedan određeni “the” i dva neodređena “a” i “an”. S obzirom da hrvatski jezik nema članova, ovo nam poglavlje može biti malo problematičnije. Osnovna pravila za upotrebu članova nisu nejasna, ali kada dosegnemo višu razinu znanja engleskog jezika, upotreba članova postaje složenija zbog mnogih iznimaka.
neodređeni: a i an
„A“ i „an“ su neodređeni članovi u engleskom jeziku. Koriste se uz imenice koje nisu određene, odnosno nisu poznate i govorniku i slušatelju. „A“ se dodaje imenicama koje počinju suglasnikom. „An“ se dodaje imenicama koje počinju samoglasnikom. To se pravilo odnosi na izgovor. Tako se ispred riječi “teacher” stavlja “a” . Ispred riječi „actor“ dodajemo član „an“.
„The“ je određeni član u engleskom jeziku i stoji uz određenu imenicu. Da bi imenica bila određena, mora se odnositi na određeni pojam koji je poznat i govorniku i slušatelju. Evo jednog takvog primjera. Ako osoba A traži od osobe B dozvolu da se posluži telefonom, to znači da je telefon vjerojatno u vlasništvu osobe B. Obje osobe znaju točno o kojem je telefonu riječ. Stoga u ovom primjeru koristimo određeni član „The“: „May i use the phone?“
Osnovno pravilo za upotrebu je: kada je brojiva imenica u jednini i spominjemo je prvi put, ispred nje postavljamo “an” (ako imenica počinje na samoglasnik: a/e/i/o/u/ə) ili “a” (ako počinje na suglasnik- sve ostale glasove). Za svako daljnje spominjanje iste imenice, upotrebljava se određeni člana “the”. Imenice u množini su bez člana ako ih spominjemo prvi put, ili imaju član “the” kada su već bile spomenute ili su određene na neki drugi način.
There is a dog in the garden. The dog is black. = Na vrtu je pas. Pas je crn.
Brojive i nebrojive imenice
Važno je da prepoznaš gdje se engleski članovi koriste, a gdje ne. U tome ti mogu pomoći brojive i nebrojive imenice. Brojive imenice se odnose na ljude, mjesta ili stvari koje se mogu izbrojati. One uvijek mogu biti u množini.
One flower – two flowers
One girl – two girls
Nebrojive imenice se često odnose na apstraktne pojmove (thought), hranu (honey), napitke (milk) ili različite tvari (ice). One se mogu izbrojati samo ako ispred njih umetneš mjerne jedinice.
Ice – Two blocks of ice
Honey – Three spoons of honey
Određeni član ‘the’
Upotrebljavamo ga za sva tri spola, ispred imenica u jednini in množini.
- Ispred imenica koje počinju na suglasnik “the” se izgovara / ð/
- Ispred imenica koje počinju na samoglasnik “the” se izgovara / ði/
- the tree = drveće
- the apple = jabuka
- the computer= računalo
- the orange car = narančasta auta
- the letter = pismo
- the intelligent professor = inteligentni profesor
- the question = pitanje
- the uncles = stričevi
Neodređeni član ‘a/an’
Ispred imenica koje počinju na suglasnik postavljamo”a”
- Ispred imenica koje počinju na samoglasnik postavljamo “an”
- a tree = stol
- an aunt = teta
- a bed = krevet
- an old school = stara škola
- an letter = pismo
- an American flag= američka zastava
PAZITE: važan je izgovor riječi, a ne njen zapis
- a unit, a used bike, a university =jedinica, polovan bicikl sveučilište
- an uncle, an honest person, an hour = ujak, poštena oseba, sat
- na početku riječi je /j/ u izgovoru, zato je član “a”
- na početku riječi je /a/ u izgovoru, zato je član “an”
Upotreba- Određeni član ‘the’
Neodređena stvar/osoba (to može biti nebrojiva imenica ili brojiva imenica u jednini) Određena stvar/osoba (nešto što je jedinstveno ili želimo izdvojiti iz skupine)
- Life is what happens to you while you’re busy making other plans. = Život je ono što ti se desi kad praviš druge planove.
- I like white flowers. = Volim bijelo cvijeće.
- There is a man sitting in the corner. = U kutu sjedi muškarac.
- I’ve read a book on the life of Roman Abramovič. = Pročitala sam knjigu o životu Roman Abramovič. (Roman Abramovič ima samo jedan život)
- I would like to buy the flowers from that vase.= Želim kupiti cvijeće iz one vaze. (točno određeno cvijeće, cvijeće iz ove vaze
- The man sitting in the corner is my ex boyfriend. = Muškarac koji sjedi u kutu je moj bivši momak. (ne bilo koja muškarac, već onaj koji sjedi u kutu)
Imena ljudi, osobna imena sa titulama Prezimena obitelji
- Pete and Tim are schoolmates.= Pete Tim su školski prijatelji.
- Uncle Tim lives in Celje.= Ujak Tim živi u Celju.
- Queen Mary was an intelligent woman.=Kraljica Mary je bila inteligentna žena.
- The Yarons enjoyed the party. = Yaronovi su uživali na zabavi.
Javne zgrade, institucije, vozila (neodređeno; kada se misli na svrhu zgrade ili predmeta, a ne zgradu samu po sebi) Javne zgrade, institucije, vozila (određeno) i “cathedral/cinema/office/theatre” ispred kojih je uvijek određeni član
- Gerry doesn’t like school. = Gerry ne voli školu.
- They go to faculty by train.= Na fakultet idu vlakom
- Many people go to church on Sundays. = Mnogo ljudi ide u crkvu nedjeljom.
- The school that Gerry goes to is well established. = Fakultet na kojeg ide Gerry ima dobru reputaciju.
- The train to Split leaves at 7.20. = Vlak za Split polazi u 7.20.
- The famous church in the centre of Zagreb has been renovated. = Obnovljena je poznata crkva u centru Zagreba.
We are going to the cinema tonight. = Večeras idemo u kino.
Imena država, planina, kontinenata, mjesta Imena država u množini, gorja, regija Croatia, Italy; Mount Feathertop, Mount Kilimanjaro; Europe, Africa; Zagreb, Rome the United Kingdom, the United States of Americam, the Netherlands; the Highlands, the Alps, the Rocky Mountains; the Middle East, the west of Australia Otoci (u jednini) Otočja (u množini) Norfolk Island, Crete, Sicily The Balearic Islands, the Canaries, the British Isles parkovi; jezera; ulice Imena sa of-frazom; oceani; mora; rijeke, kanali Mikumi National Park, Central Park, Valley of Flowers National Park, Hyde Park, Tapanti National Park; Crater Lake, Lake Baikal, Lake Tahoe Nevada, Caspian Sea; Wall Street, Lombard Street, Abbey Road the Isle of Man, the Statue of Zeus; the Indian Ocean, the Pacific Ocean, the Arctic Ocean; the Caribbean Sea, the Dead Sea, Bering Sea, The Aral Sea; the Mississippi River, the Danube River, the Ohio River; The Suez Canal Mjeseci, dani u tjednu (neodređeno) Mjeseci, dani u tjednu (određeno)
- Sunday is my best day of the week. = Nedjelja mi je najbolji dan u tjednu.
- January and February are the most popular months for skiing. = Siječanj i veljača sunajpopularniji mjeseci za skijanje.
- I will never forget the Sunday when we met.=Nikada neću zaboraviti tu nedelju kada smo se upoznali.
- The January of 2010 was mild. = Siječanj 2010. je bio blag.
Upotreba-Neodređeni član ‘a/an’
-ispred brojivih imenica u jednini koje nisu preciznije određene ili naglašne i još ih se nije spominjalo.
I read an extremely interesting article. = Pročitala sam vrlo zanimljiv članak. I met a nice girl yesterday. = Jučer sam upoznala jednu dragu djevojku. I have a big house. = Imam veliku kuću.
– u frazama sa vremenom i mjerama
We have guitar lessons three times a week. = Triput tjedno imamo satove gitare. I go on holiday twice a year. = Na odmor idem dva puta godišnje. We drove 210 kilometres an hour. = Vozili smo 210km na sat. Potatoes were €0,89 a kilo. = Krumpir je bio 0,89€ po kilogramu. Milk costs over 99 cent a bottle. = Mlijeko košta preko 99 ceni po boci.
My mother is an entreprenuer. = Moja majka je poduzetnica.
Goran Karan is a Croatian singer. = Goran Karan je hrvatski pjevač.
– half / quite
We need half a kilo of sugar. = Trebamo pola kilograma brašna. This is quite a sweet lie. = To je prilično dobra laž.
a/an and no article
- There’s an orange on the table. (Na stolu je naranča.)
- I’m not a student. (Nisam učenik/student.)
- She’s an English teacher. (Ona je učiteljica engleskog.)
- There’s a nice restaurant in my street. (U mojoj ulici je dobar restoran.)
- I have two children. (Imam dvoje djece.)
- He doesn’t work on Saturdays. (On ne radi subotom.)
The first time we talk about one person/thing, we use a or an. (Kada prvi put govorimo o jednoj osobi/stvari, koristimo a ili an.)
- Jan lives in an old house in a village near Hull. (Jan živi u staroj kuću u selu blizu Hulla.)
We use a before consonant sounds(Koristimo a prije suglasnika)
- a shelf (polica)
- a university (sveučilište)
We use an before vowel sounds (Koristimo an prije samoglasnika)
- an airport (zračna luka)
- an hour
The first time we talk about people or thing using a plural noun, we don’t use an article. (Prvi put kada govorimo o ljudima ili stvarima u množini ne koristimo član.)
- Jo knows people all over Europe. (Jo poznaje ljude po cijeloj Europi.)
- I like penguins. (Volim pingvine.)
We also use a/an (singular) and no article (plural) to talk about jobs, or to talk about what things are. (Isto tako koristimo a/an (jednina) i bez člana (množina) kako bi govorili o poslovima ili kako bi govorili što su stvari.)
- She’s an engineer. (Ona je inženjer.)
- Is that a new tablet? (Je li to novi tablet?)
- Alex and Jan are journalists. (Alex i Jan su novinari.)
- Those are beautiful earrings! (To su lijepe naušnice!)
- We use a in some phrases, e.g. a lot of, once a week. (Koristimo a u nekim frazama, npr. puno, jednom tjedno.)
- We use no article… (Član ne koristimo…)
- for names, cities, streets and most countries. (za imena, gradove, ulice i većinu država.)
- My name’s David. (Moje ime je David.)
- I’m from Bath. (Ja sam iz Batha.)
- I think this is Bond Street. (Mislim da je ovo ulica Bond.)
- We live in Venezuela. (but the USA, the UK) (Živimo u Venezueli.)
- with days, times and meals. (sa danima, vremenom i obrocima.)
- I’m free on Friday at nine o’clock. (Slobodan sam u petak od 9 sati.)
- I have lunch at one o’clock. (Ručam u 13 sati.)
- My friend’s house is in the city centre. (Kuća mojega prijatelja je u centru grada.)
- Lima is the capital of Peru. (Lima je glavni grad Perua.)
- Sheena is from the USA. (Sheena je iz SAD-a.)
- We have dinner at seven o’clock in the evening. (Večeramo u 19 sati.)
We use the to say ‘you know which one(s) I mean’. This can be… (Koristimo the da kažemo ‘znaš na koju(e) mislim. To može biti…)
- because we have already talked about it/them (jer smo već to spomenuli)
- Jan lives in an old house in a village near Hull. The house was built in 1485. The village is near a lake. (Jan živi u staroj kuću u selu blizu Hulla. Kuća je izgrađena 1485. godine. Selo je blizu jezera.)
- because we make it clear in the sentence, e.g. the shops on my street, the woman who answered the phone (zato što je jasno u rečenici, npr. dućani u mojoj ulici, žena koja je odgovorila na poziv)
- where there is only one (kada postoji samo jedan)
- the moon (Mjesec)
- the Burj Khalifa (Burj Khalifa)
- the city centre (gradski centar)
- the capital of Australia (glavni grad Australije)
- the Nile (Nil)
- We also use the for parts of the day: in the morning, in the afternoon (but at night) (Koristimo the za dijelove dana: ujutro, popodne(ali navečer))
- He works for an American company.
- We waited for an hour, but he didn’t come.
- A I bought a tablet and a smartphone yesterday.
B Was the tablet expensive?
- Neil Armstrong walked on the moon in 1969.
- Could you open the window, please?
- Museums are more interesting than art galleries.
- We use a/an with singular countable nouns to talk about a person or thing for the first time. We use an if the next word (the noun or its adjective) has a vowel sound.
We bought a new sofa yesterday.
I need an old bicycle.
A few nouns start with the vowels ‘e’ and ‘u’ but have the consonant sound /j/ so we use a, not an, before them. Also, some nouns have a silent ‘h’ and so we put an before them:
The bus only costs a euro.
The bus only costs an euro.
- We use the before a noun (singular or plural] when the listener or reader knows what we are talking about. This can be because:
- we have talked about the things before.
- Grandma gave me her rings and watch. The watch is gold; the rings are silver.
- there is only one of the thing and it’s inferred to the other person.
- We put our new clock in the living room. (There is only one
living room and the other person knows which living room you’re talking about.)
- We put our new clock in the living room. (There is only one
- what we are talking about is obvious and also inferred by the other person .
- The twins love their new toys. (There is only one pair of twins in the family.)
- There is no article when you talk about plural and uncountable
nouns in general .
- we have talked about the things before.
- Knives are dangerous.
- I love old furniture.
- There’s a concert in Hyde Park at the weekend.
- The minimum wage has gone up by around one pound an hour.
- Did you see the full moon last night? It was spectacular.
- The quickest way is to go by car; the bus takes ages.
- I walked up to the Parthenon. The view over Athens was breathtaking.
- The price of food has risen dramatically in the last year.
Indefinite article (alan)
We use a/ an when we don’t specify which exact thing is being talked about, for example when something is one member of a class or one of many. This is often when you first mention something.
I saw an amazing film last night.
Have you got a dictionary app on your phone?
a or an?
You use a or an depending on the pronunciation of the sound which follows. We use a before a consonant sound and we use an before a vowel sound.
a car an apple a house an egg
an hour a university an umbrella a euro
Definite article (the)
We use the when both the speaker and listener (or writer and reader) know the specific thing being talked about. For example, when it’s clear which one we’re talking about (often because it has previously been mentioned) or when it is the only one of something.
How was the concert last night?
Shall I open the window? (There is only one window in the room.)
The sun is hot today.
We also use the with:
- superlative forms.
- Notting Hill is the biggest carnival in the UK.
- rivers, valleys, deserts, mountain ranges, oceans, seas, groups of islands and plural country names.
- How long is the Amazon?
- We flew over the Sahara Desert.
- the names of theatres, cinemas, hotels, galleries and museums.
- Have you been to the Guggenheim Museum?
We use no article in a number of ways. These include:
- to refer to something in a general sense (with plural or uncountable nouns).
My daughter’s always listening to music.
- with most country names, continents, states, lakes and mountains.
Have you ever been to Australia?
- with towns/cities, neighbourhoods and streets.
Have you been to Paris?
- Far too many people drive to work every day. It causes terrible pollution in our cities.
- Are you sure there are enough chairs for everyone?
- Few people learn Latin at school these days. It’s such a pity.
- All students must register before Tuesday.
- Although they trained in Glasgow, both doctors now have practices in Edinburgh.
Determiners are words that come before a noun or noun phrase.
much, many, some, any, a few, etc.
We use (too) many, (a) few, several, a number of and hundreds/thousands of with countable nouns.There are several multiple-occupancy houses on my road.
We use (too) much, (a) little, a great deal of and a large quantity of with uncountable nouns.Did you do much sightseeing in Paris? A little, but it was mainly work.
We can use a lot of, lots of, some, any and enough with countable and uncountable nouns.There are a lot of cafés in the area.[/vc_column_text] Note that few and little (without a) emphasize less than expected or hoped for Few people passed the exam. A few and a little are more neutral. A few people passed the exam.
All, each, and every
We use all, every, and each to talk about more than two things. We can, however, sometimes use each to talk about just two things (e.g. Each side of the coin is different).
All is used with plural nouns. You can use all the / all (of) theAll visitors must report to reception. All (of) the apartments have been sold.
Every and each are used with singular nouns. You cannot use
Every apartment has been sold.
each the / every the
Both, either and neither
We use both, either and neither to talk about two people or thingsBoth David and Andrew speak French.
Both is used with plural nouns. Before a determiner (eg. the, my, these) we can use both or both of. When we use a pronoun (e.g. them, us, you), we must use both of.Both of them speak French.
Either and neither are used with a singular noun. We use either or and neither nor when there are two nouns. When we use a plural pronoun or a plural noun with a determiner such as the, my, or these, we use either of /neither of.I don’t like either house. Neither David nor Andrew speaks German. I don’t like either of the houses.
- I saw a great film last night.
- Would you recommend the hotel you stayed In?
- Did Oscar go to university?
There are a number of rules about the use of the indefinite article (a/an). the deﬁnite article (the) and the zero article (-). some of the main uses include:
- The basic use of a/an is when we are talking about something speciﬁc, but we don‘t know or we don’t specify the exact thing, for example, when we first mention something.
Do you support a football team?
- We also use also when we are talking in general about one example of a class (but not about the whole class).
Most of my friends support a football team.
- We also use a/an in phrases such as once a week, twice a year.
I generally go to the cinema once or twice a month.
We use a before a consonant sound and we use an before a vowel sound.
a game a university an hour an umbrella
- The basic use of the is when both the speaker and the listener know the specific thing being talked about. For example. if it has previously been mentioned or when it is the only one.
I can ’t remember the name of the team that Lucas supports.
What was the film you saw last night?
- We also use the with a singular. countable noun to talk in general about a whole class.
The dolphin is the most intelligent animal after humans.
- We also use the with a plural or uncountable noun + of + phrase to generalize.
The establishment of a new political party is very complex.
No article (or zero article)
- The basic use of no article is with uncountable or plural nouns when we are talking about people or things in general.
Do you like football?
I hardly ever watch films.
- We also use no article with certain nouns when we are talking about the use of these things for their main purpose.
We’re having a few problems at went at the moment.
- We also use no article after phrases like amount of, number of, kind of, sort of.
A great number of sports stars earn millions every year.
ARTICLES POWERPOINT PRESENTATION
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Earned Point(s): 0 of 0, (0) A. A doctor must like people. Example: I’ve got a new teacher. Take out? N Do you have an information on the story? Take out? Y A. It’s a very hot day today. Take out? A. She’s engineer working in the oil industry. Example: They act like students students / some students / both . A. Our next-door neighbours are students / some students / both . Example: I’ve got the new xbox 360. Take out? N A. The life has been hard for him since he came to this country. Take out? A. He goes (to school, to the school) every day (by bus, by the bus). Example: Are we going to the cinema tonight? R A. I want to learn how to play the guitar. Example: I’m going to park. W A. I’ll see you on Thursday. Example: Pass me the salt. R A. The Queen welcomed the President. Example: What What / What a / both nice furniture you have in your house! A. What / What a / both lovely dress you’re wearing today! A. The ball hit her on head. A. baby is that? – Do you mean the one crying? Example: Put them glasses away! W A. Put those old newspapers down — they’re dirty.
Grammar Test – articles and determiners
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“I hope your children aren’t scared of my dogs.”
Can this sentence mean the same: yes Y or no N?
“I hope your children aren’t scared of the dogs.”
Right R or Wrong W ?
B. Doctor must like people.
C. Doctors must like people.
D. The doctors must like people.
If necessary, take out a/an (‘Y’ for Yes ‘N’ for No) from these sentences. (They may not all need to be changed.)
B. It’s a very hot today. Take out?
C. I’m so happy to have you as a friend. Take out?
D. I’m so happy to have you as a my friend. Take out?
E. I haven’t got a money for the taxi. Can you lend me some? Take out?
F. Have we got a plan to deal with this situation? Take out?
Rewrite the sentences with a / an if necessary. If the sentence is correct then write ‘correct’ or ‘C’.
B. Don’t go out in the sun without hat.
C. The factory uses-energy supplied from solar power.
D. Don’t use your plate as ashtray.
Write the correct option: Students, some students or both.
B. I was talking to students / some students / both at the party.
C. We need to hire students / some students / both for the job.
If necessary, take out the (‘Y’ for Yes ‘N’ for No) from these sentences. (They may not all need to be changed.)
B. I’m writing a book on the life of Mozart Take out?
C. I didn’t understand the nature of the problem. Take out?
D. I love the nature, so I really don’t like living in the city. Take out?
Which sentence ending(s) are possible?
Life would be much quieter without…
Write the correct option in each sentence.
B. I walk (by school, by the school) every day on my way (to work, to the work) .
C. They sent her (to prison, to the prison) for six months.
D. Her parents visited her (at prison, at the prison) every week.
E. I work in a shop (by day, by the day) and study (at night, at the night).
Which of these sentences is / are right?
Right ‘R‘ or Wrong ‘W‘?
B. I want the guitar lessons.
Which of these sentences is / are right?
Right ‘R’ or wrong ‘W’?
B. I’ll see you next Thursday.
C. I’ll see you on the next Thursday.
D. I’ll see you on the Thursday before New Year’s Day.
Right ‘R’ or Wrong ‘W’ ?
B. The Queen Elizabeth welcomed the President Kennedy.
Choose and write the correct option: What…, What a…, or both?
B. What / What a / both lovely weather we’ve been having recently!
C. What / What a / both rubbish you’re talking, Martin!
Which of these should begin with the definite article the?
Which is better: her or the?
B. Katy broke arm mountain climbing.
C. She just stood there with hands in pockets.
Its, it’s, whose or who’s?
B. What’s the dog doing? playing with bone.
Right ‘R’ or wrong ‘W’ ?
B. Put those down — they’re dirty.
C. Tell those people to go away.
D. Tell those to go away.
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A. A doctor must like people.
I’ve got a new teacher. Take out? N
Do you have an information on the story? Take out? Y
A. It’s a very hot day today. Take out?
A. She’s engineer working in the oil industry.
They act like students students / some students / both .
A. Our next-door neighbours are students / some students / both .
I’ve got the new xbox 360. Take out? N
A. The life has been hard for him since he came to this country. Take out?
A. He goes (to school, to the school) every day (by bus, by the bus).
Are we going to the cinema tonight? R
A. I want to learn how to play the guitar.
I’m going to park. W
A. I’ll see you on Thursday.
Pass me the salt. R
A. The Queen welcomed the President.
What What / What a / both nice furniture you have in your house!
A. What / What a / both lovely dress you’re wearing today!
A. The ball hit her on head.
A. baby is that? – Do you mean the one crying?
Put them glasses away! W
A. Put those old newspapers down — they’re dirty.